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Pages pages. Subjects Humanities. Other topics. Religious laws. Religious news. History of the denomination: The roots of The Family can be traced back to the counter-culture movement of the late 's.
The group gained media attention by their "sackcloth vigils" in which members dressed in "sackcloths, carried staffs and declared that American society was doomed for turning its back on God" 3 Also in , David Berg became a polygynist by marrying a second wife, Maria. The Observer , a British newspaper, describes many new religious movements which they call "cults". Essay is no longer available. Robinson Go to The Family menu, or choose:.
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These organizations set high standards for professional practice that are enforced through rigorous certification and review procedures. A consortium of these and related organizations publishes the Journal of Pastoral Care.
Hospital chaplaincy, like the hospital itself, had its origin in the ancient and medieval Christian church. The rise of the modern secular hospital in the late nineteenth century, however, was not immediately accompanied by the presence of chaplains as members of hospital staffs. This pattern has continued in some smaller institutions, but today healthcare chaplaincy is fully established as a specialized ministerial profession, and chaplains are employed as regular staff members by most large healthcare institutions.
The turn toward specialized, highly trained, professional healthcare chaplaincy had its roots in the "religion and health" movement early in the twentieth century, in which a positive relation between religion and modern medicine was first seriously explored Holifield. In the s, this led to the first attempts to train theological students in clinical settings Thornton. Notable was the groundbreaking work of a physician, William S.
Keller, who placed theological students in a general hospital in Cincinnati in , and Anton T. Boisen, a Congregational minister who began what became the "clinical pastoral training movement" with his pioneering program relating religion to mental disorders at Worcester State Hospital in Massachusetts in Boisen had the key support of two physicians, the distinguished Boston medical educator, Richard C.
Soon thereafter another physician, Flanders Dunbar, noted for her research in psychosomatic medicine , became a major leader of the movement. These and other early innovators were convinced that not books but intensive clinical experience—learning to interpret the experience of real human beings, to read the "living human documents" through clinical encounters—held the key to developing a realistic and profound theological understanding of human nature and the art of effective pastoral care Boisen. The movement developed rapidly in the postwar period, when many training centers were organized, chaplain supervisors certified, and staff chaplaincy positions created in mental and general hospitals.
Clinical pastoral education was seldom undertaken in congregational settings, partly for pedagogical and practical reasons related to the abundance of pastoral opportunities in hospitals, and partly for financial reasons—hospitals were better able to pay for these programs than churches or seminaries. Most programs were sponsored by hospitals, and C.
Medical institutions still comprise the vast majority of C. Today, however, C.
Healthcare chaplaincy itself is similarly established as a highly specialized, professionally trained and certified form of ministerial practice. Most hospital administrations require staff chaplains to have completed a year or more of C. The high degree of professional cooperation existing today between pastoral caregivers and medical professionals represents a remarkable and relatively recent development in both medicine and religion. In ancient and medieval times medicine and religion often enjoyed a close relationship; healing rites, exorcisms, pilgrimages, and health cults flourished.
But with the Protestant Reformation and the later rise of modern science and scientific medicine, Christian ministry began a long retreat from its tradition of involvement in healing, and theology grew increasingly wary of making scientific, empirical claims about the natural world. An intellectual and professional schism between religion and medicine resulted. As medicine became scientific and ministry became con-fined to matters of God and the soul, corresponding spheres of professional influence were delineated: physicians cared scientifically for the body; clergy cared spiritually for the soul.
Medical science assigned mental and emotional disorders, traditionally considered problems of the soul, to the body as organically caused, and regarded them as at least potentially treatable by physical i. With the development of dynamic psychiatry and the religion and health movement in the early twentieth century, such distinctions began to blur. Psychoanalysis and related developments in psychiatry revealed psychogenic factors in many psychiatric disorders, while empirical studies in psychosomatic medicine demonstrated the profound effects of emotional and spiritual attitudes on physical health and healing.
At the same time, theology began to recover biblical, holistic conceptions of human personhood, salvation, and the healing potential of religious ministry.
In this theology the welfare of the whole person, physical, mental, and spiritual, was regarded as a profound unity. The result was a gradual closing of the theoretical gap between medicine and religion and the emergence of a more collaborative style of work between physicians and pastoral caregivers.
Prior to the twentieth century, pastoral care was dominantly concerned with problems that could be clearly or outwardly identified as religious and moral in nature or as having religious significance, such as faith, doubt, sin, repentance, and the mysteries of suffering, illness, death, and dying. Contemporary pastoral care, however, at least as practiced in the larger Christian denominations sectarian churches being the usual exception , holds to broader conceptions of Christian ministry, human welfare, and the meaning of salvation.
In these traditions, physical welfare and emotional health play prominent parts in the overall meaning of salvation; ministry's sphere of concern includes the total health and welfare of persons and families in this world. Often this understanding gives prominence to psychology as an adjunctive discipline, and ministry acquires a distinctly psychotherapeutic style and orientation.
This has been especially evident in the mainline Protestant denominations, but it is increasingly true of Roman Catholic and some conservative Protestant traditions. Judaism has historically emphasized the values of human health and welfare. This therapeutic style of ministry has important ethical and professional consequences.
Typically, it seeks to broaden moral discussion in healthcare settings from a focus on the content of moral decisions—what to do—to a focus on the process and quality of the decision making itself. Healthcare chaplains try to foster the psychological conditions that will facilitate free and responsible moral judgment and decision. These conditions include relationships of trust that permit open, honest communication among all parties concerning feelings as well as ideas and opinions.
Though facilitating such conditions is not usually thought of as a form of moral guidance, it obviously has important moral value. Some pastoral authorities, however, while affirming this approach, have also urged pastoral caregivers to engage the substantive questions of ethics more directly in their caring ministries Browning, , ; Carnes. Pastoral care, including healthcare chaplaincy, has not been highly articulate concerning the traditions of philosophical and theological ethics out of which it has operated Carnes.
Most pastoral theologians have concentrated instead on theological questions of human nature and the relation of religion to health Browning, ; Holifield. However, much of the informal ethical reflection in the field has probably been influenced chiefly by some form of situation ethics.
Situation ethics holds that fixed laws and rules are inadequate for moral decision making; decisions must be reached through a careful assessment of the particulars of each situation, guided by very general principles such as love, justice, and responsibility. Pastors with therapeutic training often exemplify this orientation since they tend to be concerned more about the specifics of situations than the application of abstract moral rules and principles Poling, b.
In addition to improved spiritual well-being, chaplains hope to resolve conflicts between patients, families and treatment teams, connect patients to community sources of support, facilitate use of beneficial treatments and palliative services, and help patients make decisions about long-term care and the type of legacy they hope to leave. This commitment to an ethic of character and virtue thus easily complements the field's general tendency to support situational or contextual forms of ethical reasoning. Directors in psychiatric hospitals were less likely to refer to chaplains than other directors. Thus, spiritual care will be defined as helping the patient maximize their relationship with that which is sacred in the service of their healing. In CBPR, local stakeholders partner with academic investigators to address problems of mutual interest.
Their typical ethical question is likely to be: "What is the appropriate, responsible, loving, or just thing to do in this situation, given its many complexities and dynamics? Pastoral care also has a close affinity with what is called the "ethics of character and virtue," though this connection is seldom recognized Poling, a. Conceptions of personality implicit in therapeutic psychology often function as secular character ideals within pastoral care.