web.difccourts.ae/la-llave-de-la-paz-interior-quin-te.php The journey is well worth it, though, and we predict more will make the journey in the coming years. And be sure to read the full series: Best Places to Travel in Do you want to be notified when new lists of the best places to travel by continent are released? Christchurch is on my bucketlist specifically because I can get some skiing in AND enjoy some red deer. Tasmania is looking quite cool.
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With rebuild projects well underway, new shops, restaurants, bars and cafes are popping up all over the city. The eastern Pacific is virtually empty, and huge areas of ocean had to be crossed to find remaining islands. The chance of any voyage resulting in a new discovery was low. It would have been pointless to send migratory canoes carrying people, plants and animals. Probably, exploring voyagers made discoveries and then returned home; migrating voyagers could then set off, sailing directly to known destinations.
The further east you sail in the Pacific the more difficult it is to navigate. Over time, voyagers had learnt how to navigate this part of the ocean. Computer-simulated voyages suggest that homecoming canoes must have been increasingly reliant upon latitude sailing: returning navigators would use zenith stars which at their highest point shine directly over a known island to reach the latitude of their destination while still upwind of it. They would then run downwind to reach the island. In prehistoric voyages from central East Polynesia to islands at its distant margins, canoes generally made round trips — the prevailing winds did not normally allow voyagers to return directly.
Coyne, W. Pacific Islands , island geographic region of the Pacific Ocean. Drake et al. Irvine, S. Sterling, and T.
They had to stop at islands along the way, or use different weather systems. Lying in a band of prevailing westerly winds far south of the tropics, New Zealand presented a severe challenge to Polynesian navigators. A good way to reach the country was to sail with easterly tail winds across the top of an anti-clockwise rotating high-pressure system.
Early summer, before the cyclone season, is an ideal time to make the journey. The long-tailed cuckoo comes to New Zealand from tropical Polynesia in October, and shearwaters would have been observed flying south in September. People would have known that land lay in that direction, but not how far away it was. The first landfalls were probably on the northern North Island, with the rest of the country being explored later.
The islands were the extreme destination in prehistoric migration, because they lie in a belt of westerly winds that would have been very difficult to return against. Not surprisingly, they were the last Pacific islands to be reached some time after — much later than South America some time before Some 6, years ago sea levels reached a high point of a few metres above present levels, and over several thousand years they slowly dropped.
It probably took many hundreds of years for habitable dry islets to form on coral reefs. In the case of high islands the falling sea levels allowed the formation of extensive coastal flats favourable for settlement.
At the time of the settlement of New Zealand, there was a voyaging and trading sphere in East Polynesia within which ideas and cultural traits were shared and spread. Even so, specific archaeological evidence is scarce. The shank of a fishing lure of black-lipped pearl shell, found at Tairua in the Coromandel, is one of a very few items from New Zealand archaeological sites that were actually brought from Polynesia.
This suggests that several canoes came from a number of sources. They may have come over several generations, or even centuries. A study of human DNA also suggests that there was a minimum of 70— women as founding ancestors. Several canoes, possibly coming from several locations, would be needed to bring this number of people. However, there is no archaeological evidence of return voyaging. There is evidence of direct New Zealand—Norfolk connections. Sea mammals, particularly seals, were plentiful on the coast, as were fish and shellfish. Polynesians introduced the dog and the rat; if pigs and fowl had been on the canoes, they did not survive.
The settlers also brought with them taro, yam, paper mulberry and the Pacific cabbage tree Cordyline fruticosa. It was too cold for plants such as coconut, breadfruit and banana. A common reason for seeking new lands is overcrowding. But early Pacific migrations were not forced by the need for more space. In Lapita times population numbers were lower than they would ever be again.
Stories of voyages of exile, overpopulation and warfare all belong to the end of Polynesian prehistory, long after the islands were settled. There is also little support for the Pacific being settled by accidental drift voyages — it was clearly intentional. Voyaging in the Pacific had declined by about AD. In recent decades there has been a huge revival of interest in navigational arts and once again the seaways are being crossed by traditional-style canoes.
Another motive is the need for more resources. On new islands there were huge numbers of seabirds, fish and turtles, as well as other wildlife. As these were used up or brought to extinction, people would once again need to travel on. But this pattern is more typical of people who hunt and gather their supplies than of the sophisticated food cultivators who settled the Pacific Islands. It may be that Pacific migration was driven by impulses which were both universal and personal — discovery, prestige, exile, a sense of adventure, wanderlust, curiosity. Technological innovation and exploration have also been essential features of human behaviour for more than a million years.
Anderson, A. Rotterdam: Balkema, Dickinson, W. Howe, K. The quest for origins: who first discovered and settled New Zealand and the Pacific Islands? Auckland: Penguin, Irwin, Geoff. The prehistoric exploration and colonisation of the Pacific. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, Kirch, Patrick Vinton. On the road of the winds: an archaeological history of the Pacific Islands before European contact. Berkeley: University of California Press, Morwood, M. Sharp, Andrew. Ancient voyagers in Polynesia. Founded in Hawaii in , the Polynesian Voyaging Society built replica canoes and sailed them using traditional navigation methods.
There were two distinct voyaging periods. Ancient voyaging in Near Oceania The earliest humans More than a million years ago an ancient type of human, known as Homo erectus , moved from Africa as far as the coast of mainland South-East Asia. Water crossing by modern humans People living in Near Oceania had highly developed artistic and linguistic abilities, as did those living in Europe at that time. Island geology and migration There are two main types of island in the Pacific: continental and oceanic.
Migration to East Polynesia Radiocarbon dating reveals that there were no human settlements in East Polynesia for more than 1, years after the Lapita arrived in West Polynesia. Themes are deliberated within the language of the play, but are also brought to contemplation through visual dream signs, inventing a new kind of dramaturgical language. Brown However, the shared experience accrued over three days did cohere academics, artists, local and visiting publics around the urgencies and exigencies of climate change, made more urgent through the uneven string of unfurling events within a vulnerable terrain integrating landscape and seascape.
By way of a generally improvised site-responsive engagement — with minimal time to rehearse and little control of the environment — the event dramaturgy incorporated both the dramatic structure associated with theatre — as an essentially linear temporal experience — and non-scripted encounters with quotidian life and open environments: constantly factoring chance and change into the experience. The conjunctions and disjunctions between performance and surroundings created experiences differing from those where performance is explicitly developed and practiced as site-specific, because most presenters in Rarotonga were deftly adapting to the given environment, rather than creating especially for it.
Away from the controllable interiors of theatres, galleries, and seminar rooms, performance time became mutable, elasticizing space itself. Performances and the passages between them adapted to shifts of temperature, sunlight, and air movement. Sudden gusts of wind and fluctuating cloud formations defined variable and unpredictable effects as did passing traffic and pedestrians. The environment itself, as a variable multiplicity, was inherent to how the overall event and its many performances were planned, enacted, and received.
The fluidity of space and time is as corporeal as it is locative. A dramaturgy of encounter between humans and non-humans therefore defies predictability and a direct, undeviating line of action. It also challenges the notion of a tidy weave as either production or outcome of any ethical performance encounter within and between cultures. Like the fringing reefs and beaches of our ancestral islands, we are in constant motion with the tides of change and growth. Vincente Diaz qtd.
While weaving is a dominant physical and conceptual paradigm for Pacific art-making — visual, spatial, and performative — this is challenged by oceanic fluidity. Through the Berlin-based International Research Centre — Interweaving Performance Cultures — the interweave is established as a metaphor for interaction and engagement, in order to question identity within our contemporary global condition and enhance diversification rather than contribute to the homogenization of cultures.
Positing the sea as a dynamic force — its formlessness presenting a continually ruptured contiguity of a borderless hydrosphere operating above and below an unstable surface — this article concludes by asserting fluid entanglement, rather than the interweave, as a means of recognizing meeting grounds as necessarily turbulent, tainted, and unpredictable.
The ultimate entangled mesh in relation to oceanic objects is the fishing net inadvertently set adrift to collect organic and inorganic matter: most profoundly seen in abandoned ghost nets, lost and drifting in the sea, which ensnare marine life, smother reefs, foul beaches, and introduce invasive species or diseases. This recalls a photograph of Mara-i-Wai Lost at Sea , a three-day performance-art event staged by Moce Islanders of the Korova squatter community on the foreshore of Suva, Fiji, in Brunt et al. Women move in the tide dragging nets of gathered debris in front of a traditional outrigger canoe as a ritual of re-sanctification, recognising how they sailed from the Lau Islands in , using only ancient navigational techniques.
Appearing and disappearing as a spectral thread on the periphery of action, she accentuates the lopsided weave as cultural entanglement. Unless they incorporate the movement forms that characterize the primary experiences of meeting and parting, they continue to territorialize desire even when they seek to establish common boundaries. Carter 7. Just as the Pacific Ocean is conceived as the Big Blue Canoe upon which many canoes navigate, we might also perceive of it as a net, within which multiple nets are entangled.
Such knotting, twisting and snaring in motion was spatiotemporally enacted through the event-dramaturgy of Sea-Change in order to acknowledge the dystopian and disputed reality of a Pacific Ocean in jeopardy. The islands in this sea of islands are on the frontline of climate change, already disappearing and losing patrimony through acidifying sea, bleaching corral, depleting marine life, and an ever-increasing gyre of debris gathering just below its surface. Constructed of multiple events, performance was the principle medium for playing out the matters in question.
The notion of AnthropoScenic Bride as abjectile abject-object — contiguous with terrain and emergent as theatre-of-matter — was conveyed to choreographer, Katherine Mezur, who collaborated with dancers Megan Nicely, Tanya Calamoneri, and Tanya London to reconfigure the body objects as events within the specific landscape of Aomori before processing into the auditorium, where the opening ceremony was taking place.
As performative vessel of transfer, the large, white, digitally-printed techno-garland — its shapes generated by sounds harvested from Sea-Change performances — was then placed around the neck of Hayato Kosuge Director of the Fluid States Japan conference, titled Beyond Contamination: Corporeality, Spirituality, and Pilgrimage. Event dramaturgy has here been theorized as a critical spatial practice in which the aleatory is welcomed because its crude reality makes us continually aware of ecological entanglements, especially in relation to Pacific performance practices and that mutable oceanic mesh under threat.
Accessed 15 May Ackerman, Diane. Norton and Company, Bharucha, Rustom.
Brown, Kevin. Art in Oceania: A New History. Thames and Hudson, Carter, Paul. Dark Writing: Geography, Performance, Design. Chaudhuri, Una. Crocombe, Majorie.
Mana Magazine. Danan, Joseph. Deleuze, Gilles. Derrida, Jacques. Baltimore: John Hopkins University Press, Di Benedetto, Stephen. Ferris-Leary, Helen. University of Auckland, PhD Dissertation. Foucault, Michel. Hamlyn, Glenine. Accessed: 15 May Hannah, Dorita and Carol Brown. Tauris, ,