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Search within questions and answers. Wansdyke , an early medieval defensive linear earthwork, runs from south of Bristol to near Marlborough, Wiltshire , passing not far from Bath. It probably was built in the fifth or sixth centuries, perhaps by Ceawlin. Ceawlin's last recorded victory is in The entry reads "Here Ceawlin and Cutha fought against the Britons at the place which is named Fethan leag, and Cutha was killed; and Ceawlin took many towns and countless war-loot, and in anger he turned back to his own [territory].
The phrase "in anger he turned back to his own" probably indicates that this annal is drawn from saga material, as perhaps are all of the early Wessex annals. It may be that Ceawlin's overlordship of the southern Britons came to an end with this battle. About , Bede, a Northumbrian monk and chronicler, wrote a work called the Ecclesiastical History of the English People.
The work was not primarily a secular history, but Bede provides much information about the history of the Anglo-Saxons, including a list early in the history of seven kings who, he said, held "imperium" over the other kingdoms south of the Humber. The usual translation for "imperium" is "overlordship". Bede names Ceawlin as the second on the list, although he spells it "Caelin", and adds that he was "known in the speech of his own people as Ceaulin".
The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, in an entry for the year , repeats Bede's list, adds Egbert of Wessex , and also mentions that they were known as "bretwalda", or "Britain-ruler".
It has been described as a term "of encomiastic poetry",  but there also is evidence that it implied a definite role of military leadership. Bede says that these kings had authority "south of the Humber ", but the span of control, at least of the earlier bretwaldas, likely was less than this. Bede's concept of the power of these overlords also must be regarded as the product of his eighth-century viewpoint.
Ceawlin is the second king in Bede's list. The lack of gaps between the overlordships of the later bretwaldas has been used to make an argument for Ceawlin's dates matching the later entries in the Chronicle with reasonable accuracy. The date for the battle at Wibbandun is thought to be unlikely because of the assertion in various versions of the West Saxon Genealogical Regnal List that Ceawlin's reign lasted either seven or seventeen years. Ceawlin lost the throne of Wessex in The annal for that year reads, in part: "Here there was great slaughter at Woden's Barrow, and Ceawlin was driven out.
The medieval chronicler William of Malmesbury , writing in about , says that it was "the Angles and the British conspiring together". The relevant part of the annal reads: "Here Ceawlin and Cwichelm and Crida perished. According to the Regnal List, Ceol was a son of Cutha, who was a son of Cynric; and Ceolwulf, his brother, reigned for seventeen years after him. It is possible that some fragmentation of control among the West Saxons occurred at Ceawlin's death: Ceol and Ceolwulf may have been based in Wiltshire, as opposed to the upper Thames valley.
The West Saxons remained influential in military terms, however: the Chronicle and Bede record continued military activity against Essex and Sussex within twenty or thirty years of Ceawlin's death. Ceawlin also spelled Ceaulin and Caelin, died ca. He may have been the son of Cynric of Wessex and the grandson of Cerdic of Wessex, whom the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle represents as the leader of the first group of Saxons to come to the land which later became Wessex.
Ceol also known as Ceola or Ceolric was King of Wessex from to Ceol was the son of Cutha or Cuthwulf , the son of Cynric of Wessex. He reigned from either or to According to the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, he began his reign in , but it was only in the following year that he drove out his uncle Ceawlin in a battle at Woden's Barrow in Wiltshire, thus denying the throne to the rightful heir, Ceawlin's son Cuthwine. Upon his death the throne passed to his brother Ceolwulf.
Because his son Cynegils was presumably too young to inherit the throne, it was given to the brother, as was probably the custom among the Saxons. It is possible that Maqui Coline is linked to Ceol, suggesting a rival f. Cuthwine, born c. Cuthwine went into exile for many decades, remaining a strong leader of the Saxons and passing on the royal line through his three sons.
Early life He was born in the fifth year of his father's long reign over the West Saxons.
He was a grandson of Cynric, the son of Cerdic, the first of the Saxons to come across the sea from Germany; and he and his people were still relatively out of place in a world dominated by the Britons. Nothing is known of his early life. Ceawlin lost the throne of Wessex in June His opponent was Ceol,.
Wessex became a Christian kingdom after Cenwalh was baptised and was expanded under his rule. His successor, Ine, issued one of the oldest surviving English law codes and established a second West Saxon bishopric. The throne subsequently passed to a series of kings with unknown genealogies.
During the 8th century, as the hegemony of Mercia grew, Wessex largely retained its independence. It was during this period that the system of shires was established. Cynric was King of Wessex from to Everything known about him comes from the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. There, he is stated to have been the son of Cerdic, who is considered the founder of the kingdom of Wessex. Rule During his reign, as described in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, the Saxons expanded into Wiltshire against strong resistance and captured Searobyrig, or Old Sarum, near Salisbury, in In , he and.
This is a list of monarchs of Wessex until AD. For later monarchs, see the List of English monarchs. While the details of the later monarchs are confirmed by a number of sources, the earlier ones are in many cases obscure. The names are given in modern English form followed by the names and titles as far as is known in contemporary Old English Anglo-Saxon and Latin, the prevalent "official" languages of the time in England.
This was a period in which spellings varied widely, even within a document. A number of variations of the details below exist. Thorn tended to be more used in the south Wessex and eth in the North Mercia and Northumbria. Separate letters th were preferred in the earliest period in. When Ine abdicated and went to Rome in , he left behind no obvious heir, and according to Bede simply left his kingdom "to younger men". Subsequent kings of Wessex were each claimed by the Chronicle to descend in some manner from Cerdic.
His origin, ethnicity, and even his very existence have been extensively disputed. Ine, also rendered Ini or Ina, Latin: Inus; c. AD — after was King of Wessex from  to At Ine's accession, his kingdom dominated much of southern England. By the end of Ine's reign, the kingdoms of Kent, Sussex, and Essex were no longer under West Saxon sway; however, Ine maintained control of what is now Hampshire, and consolidated and extended Wessex's territory in the western peninsula.
Ine is noted for his code of laws leges Inae or "laws of Ine" , which he issued in about These laws were the first issued by an Anglo-Saxon king outside Kent. They shed much light on the history of Anglo-Saxon society, and reveal Ine's Christian convictions. Trade increased significantly during Ine's reign, with the town of Hamwic now Southampton becoming prominent.
It was probably during Ine's reign that the West Saxons began to mint coins, though none have b. Bede writes that after the death of King Cenwalh in "his under-rulers took upon them the kingdom of the people, and dividing it among themselves, held it ten years". Cenwalh, also Cenwealh or Coenwalh, was King of Wessex from c.
He was also the great-great grandson of Cerdic. Cynegils was King of Wessex from c. Cynegils is traditionally considered to have been King of Wessex, but the familiar kingdoms of the so-called Heptarchy had not yet formed from the patchwork of smaller kingdoms in his lifetime. This region, probably connected to the early tribal grouping known as the Gewisse, a term used by Bede for the West Saxons, lay on the frontier between the later kingdoms of Wessex and Mercia.
His relationship to Ceolwulf is uncertain. Cynegils is variously described in West Saxon sources as. Events from the 6th century in England. Events c. His name is derived from the Welsh Cadwallon. In either or , he became King of Wessex. Cuthwine c. Cuthwulf, also sometimes Cutha fl. Although a member of the direct male line from Cynric to Egbert see House of Wessex family tree , Cuthwulf was never king. He is said to have been born circa , and his death date is unknown. His brothers were Cynebald and Cedda; his son was Ceolwald of Wessex; nothing more of his life is known.
Due to the similarity of his name to his father's name, and the shadowy nature of early Anglo-Saxon genealogies, it appears that he was often confused with his father Cuthwine. For example, Caedwalla was said to be the son of Cedda and the grandson of Cutha, where Cutha here presumably refers to Cuthwine, since Cedda is also said to be the brother of Cuthwulf.
Early life Cuthwulf was born in tumultuous times. He was the third son of Cuthwine, son of Ceawlin, son of Cynric, the son of Cerdic, the first of the Saxons to come across the sea from Germany; and he and his people were still re. The battle, which was a major victory for the Wessex forces led by Ceawlin and his son, Cuthwine, resulted in the capture of the Brythonic cities of Glevum Gloucester , Corinium Dobunnorum Cirencester and Aquae Sulis Bath.
It also led to the permanent cultural and ethnic separation of Dumnonia Devon and Cornwall from Wales. Although it gives few details, it describes the battle as a major engagement. This is generally taken to be Dyrham in what is now South Gloucestershire, on the Cotswolds escarpment a few miles north of B.
The eighth-century monk Bede, in his Ecclesiastical History of the English People, lists him as the third king to hold imperium over other Anglo-Saxon kingdoms. In the late ninth century Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, he is referred to as a bretwalda, or "Britain-ruler". He was the first English king to convert to Christianity. He married Bertha, the Christian daughter of Charibert, king of the Franks, thus building an alliance with the most powerful state in contemporary Western Europe; the marriage probably took place before he came to the throne.
Bertha's influence may have led to Pope Gregory I's decision to send Augustine as a missionary from Rome. Augustine landed on the Isle of Thanet in east Kent in Dumnonia is the Latinised name for the Brythonic kingdom in Sub-Roman Britain between the late 4th and late 8th centuries, in what is now the more westerly parts of South West England. It was centred in the area later called Devon, but included modern Cornwall and part of Somerset, with its eastern boundary changing over time as the gradual westward expansion of the neighbouring Anglo-Saxon kingdom of Wessex encroached on its territory.
The spelling Damnonia is sometimes encountered, but is also used for the land of the Damnonii, later part of the Kingdom of Strathclyde, in what is today southern Scotland. Name The kingdom is named after the Dumnonii, a British Celtic tribe living in the southwest at the time of the Roman invasion of Britain, according to Ptolemy's Geography.
Variants of the name Dumnonia include Domnonia and Damnonia, the latter being used by Gildas in the 6th century as a. The entry for in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, which lists the eight bretwaldas Bretwalda also brytenwalda and bretenanwealda, sometimes capitalised is an Old English word. The first record comes from the late 9th-century Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. It is given to some of the rulers of Anglo-Saxon kingdoms from the 5th century onwards who had achieved overlordship of some or all of the other Anglo-Saxon kingdoms. It is unclear whether the word dates back to the 5th century and was used by the kings themselves or whether it is a later, 9th-century, invention.
The literal meaning of the word is disputed and may translate to either 'wide-ruler' or 'Britain-ruler'. The rulers of Mercia were generally the most powerful of the Anglo-Saxon kings from the mid 7th century to the early 9th century but are not accorded the title of bretwalda by the Chronicle, which had an anti-Mercian bias. The Annals of Wales continued to recognise the kings of Nor. The denomination for this year has been used since the early medieval period, when the Anno Domini calendar era became the prevalent method in Europe for naming years.
For some time he exacts a tribute of cows every year. Alexander George Thynn, 7th Marquess of Bath born 6 May , styled Viscount Weymouth between and , is an English politician, artist, and author.
New copy - Usually dispatched within 2 working days. A sensible commander therefore did everything possible to avoid battle unless he was confident of winning. The larger part of most armies was levies, whose loyalties extended beyond their lord to their homes, families and farms. Comparatively early in his reign, according to Asser, the southern Welsh princes, owing to the pressure on them of North Wales and Mercia, commended themselves to Alfred. Based on place-names, the battlefield is likely to be in either the Vale of Llangollen near Correg, or near Mold in Clwyd. When he took his troops to Gaul, Constantine III could not have believed that his departure was in any way the end of the Empire in Britain.
Early life and education Although born in London, he grew up at his family's seat, Longleat, a great Elizabethan house set in Wiltshire parkland landscaped in the 18th century by Capability Brown. Shortly after the election, he was one of the founders of the Wessex Regionalist Party. He stood for the party in the first ever elections to the Europea.
Britain Adda succeeds his brother Glappa as king of Bernicia approximate date. Ceawlin succeeds his father Cynric as king of Wessex approximate date. By topic Religion Columba quarrels with Finnian of Moville over authorship of a psalter, leading to a pitched battle the next year. Ceawlin was king of Anglo-Saxon Wessex. In most versions of the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle the entry does not record the identity of the force opposing Ceawlin but one version, Manuscript E, says they were Britons.
The Chronicle records a second battle on the same site in the year The area was of strategic importance since it lay near the intersection of the ancient Ridgeway with Wansdyke. By counter-invading their homelands on the Balkans, Byzantine troops increase their pay by pillaging in hostile territory. Europe January 28 — King Guntram, age 59, dies after a year reign and is succeeded by his nephew Childebert II, who becomes ruler of Burgundy. Their invasion of Northern Italy is almost unopposed; withered Byzantine forces, that remain in the Po Valley and are based at Ravenna, are no match for the overwhelming Lombard incursion.
Residents of the Italian countryside flee at the Lombards' approach. Some retreat to the barrier islands along the shore of the Northern Adriatic Sea, where they establish permanent settlements: the nascent city of Venice. Bavarians, Sarmatians, Saxons and Taifali, join the invasion en route. As they adv. There is also use of this term to apply to areas around the River Severn as far south as Gloucester, and as far north as Ironbridge.
To the north of Bridgnorth, the area around the river becomes much steeper and is known as Ironbridge Gorge. From Stourport on Severn south to Gloucester, the riverside has a much larger flood plain and loses its distinctive "valley" hillsides found a few miles north in Bewdley.
History The Severn Valley.
Summer — Tiberius, Byzantine co-ruler Caesar , establishes a naval base at Derbent on the Caspian Sea to construct a Byzantine fleet approximate date. Winter — Maurice is appointed commander-in-chief of the Byzantine army in the East.
In the chaos that engulfed Britain after the “Age of Arthur”, one battle stands out. This was a key battle fought in the heart of the Dark Ages for control of southern. Paperback; Publisher: Bretwalda Books; Language: English; ISBN Start reading The Battle of Wimbledon () (Bretwalda Battles Book 7) on your Kindle .
He succeeds Justinian, despite complete lack of military experience. Grid squares are 1km. Wroughton is a large village and civil parish in northeast Wiltshire, England. It is part of the Borough of Swindon and lies along the A road between Swindon and Avebury; the road into Swindon crosses the M4 motorway between junctions 15 and The village is about 2. The World Heritage Site at Avebury is about 7 miles The parish includes North Wroughton, formerly a small settlement on the road towards Swindon but now part of the built-up area; and the hamlets of Elcombe and Overtown.
History The earliest evidence of human presence in the area is from the Mesolithic period, although this is fairly limited. Events By place Europe September — King Chilperic I dies after a year reign over a territory extending from Aquitaine to the northern seacoast of what later will be France. He is stabbed to death while returning from a hunt near Chelles. His wife Fredegund, who has paid for his assassination, seizes his wealth, flees to Paris with her son Chlothar II, and persuades the nobles to accept him as legitimate heir while she serves as regent, continuing her power struggles with Guntram, king of Burgundy, and her sister Brunhilda, queen mother of Austrasia.
The Lombards re-establish a unified monarchy after a year interregnum Rule of the Dukes. Threatened by a Frankish invasion t. He crosses the river to fight in the uncharted swamps and forests of modern-day Wallachia. Autumn — Emperor Maurice orders Priscus to spend the winter with his troops on the northern Danube bank, but he disobeys the emperor's order and retreats to the port city of Odessus Varna on the Black Sea Coast. His accession possibly involves dynastic rivalry and the exile of Hussa's relatives.
He is considered the "Apostle to the English" and a founder of the English Church. Stoke Lyne is a village and civil parish about 4 miles 6. He was the son of Tytila of East Anglia and a member of the Wuffingas dynasty named after his grandfather, Wuffa , who were the first kings of the East Angles. This is a list of monarchs who lost their thrones before the 13th century.
Theodosius III of Abkhazia, forced to abdicate in Sergius II of Amalfi, —, deposed. Manso II of Amalfi, to , from to , and from to John II of Amalfi, — with many interruptions. John III of Amalfi, , deposed.