cars.cleantechnica.com/alfa-peligroso-bdsm-y-romance-con.php Two days after the Battle of Germantown, on October 6, , he was given his official appointment as one of General Washington's aides-de-camp , and was commissioned with the rank of lieutenant colonel. After spending the remainder of the winter of — encamped at Valley Forge , Laurens marched to New Jersey with the rest of the Continental Army at the end of June , to face the British at the Battle of Monmouth.
On December 23, , Laurens engaged in a duel with General Charles Lee just outside Philadelphia, after Laurens took offense to Lee's slander of Washington's character. Lee was wounded in the side by Laurens' first shot and the affair was ended by the men's seconds, Alexander Hamilton and Evan Edwards, before they could fire a second time. As the British stepped up operations in the South, Laurens promoted the idea of arming slaves and granting them freedom in return for their service. He had written, "We Americans at least in the Southern Colonies, cannot contend with a good Grace, for Liberty, until we shall have enfranchised our Slaves.
In early , Laurens proposed to his father, who was then the President of the Continental Congress, to use forty slaves he stood to inherit as part of a brigade. Henry Laurens granted the request, but with reservations that caused postponement of the project. Congress approved the concept of a regiment of slaves in March , and sent Laurens south to recruit a regiment of 3, black soldiers; however, the plan was opposed, and Laurens was ultimately unsuccessful. Having won election to the South Carolina House of Representatives , Laurens introduced his black regiment plan in , again in , and a third time in , meeting overwhelming rejection each time.
In , when the British threatened Charleston, Governor Rutledge proposed to surrender the city with the condition that Carolina become neutral in the war. Laurens strongly opposed the idea, and fought with Continental forces to repel the British. As the enemy drew near, Moultrie was about to send an aide to pull these troops back to the main force when Col. John Laurens offered to lead them back.
Moultrie had so much confidence in the officer that he sent along men to help cover the flanks.
In direct disobedience of orders, Laurens crossed the river and formed the men in line for battle. He failed to take the high ground and his men suffered greatly from well-placed enemy fire. Laurens himself was wounded, and his second in command fell back to the main force at the Tullifinny, where Moultrie was compelled to retreat towards Charleston. Due to Laurens' connections, his activities could not escape notice; for example, in a May 5 letter to the governor of Virginia, South Carolina's lieutenant governor Thomas Bee added a postscript: "Col.
Laurens was taken prisoner by the British in May , after the fall of Charleston. As a prisoner of war , he was shipped to Philadelphia, where he was paroled with the condition that he would not leave Pennsylvania. In Philadelphia, Laurens was able to visit his father, who would soon take ship for the Netherlands as American ambassador, in search of loans.
During the voyage to his post, Henry Laurens' ship was seized by the British, resulting in the elder Laurens' imprisonment in the Tower of London. Determined to return to South Carolina, and in the expectation of being freed by a prisoner exchange in November , Laurens wrote to George Washington and requested a leave of absence from his service as aide-de-camp:. Riveted to head quarters by my attachment to Your Excellency and the patronage with which you have been pleased to honor me, nothing but the approaching critical junction of southern affairs and the expectation of my countrymen could induce me to sollicit a farther leave of absence in case of my exchange I indulge a hope that my acquaintance with the country and connexions as a southern man may enable me to be of some ability in the new theatre of the war—and the present season of tranquility here, appears too favorable an opportunity to be overlooked—these motives which I submit to Your Excellency, prompt me to entreat your permission to join the southern army for the ensuing Campaign.
Washington responded, "The motives which led you to the Southward are too laudable and too important not to meet my approbation. Upon his release, Laurens was unwillingly appointed by Congress in December as a special minister to France. Preferring to return to the South, he had originally refused the post and proposed Alexander Hamilton as the better candidate.
He wrote again to advise Washington that "unfortunately for America, Col. Hamilton was not sufficiently known to Congress to unite their suffrages in his favor and I was assured there remained no other alternative to my acceptance than the total failure of the business. Thus circumstanced I was reduced to submit—and renounce my plan of participating in the southern campaign. Laurens gained French assurances that French ships would support American operations that year; the promised naval support was later to prove invaluable at the Siege of Yorktown. Laurens was also reported to have told the French that without aid for the Revolution, the Americans might be forced by the British to fight against France.
When Laurens and Paine returned to America in August , they brought 2. Laurens also was able to arrange a loan and supplies from the Dutch , before returning home. His father Henry Laurens, the American ambassador to the Netherlands who had been captured by the British, was exchanged for General Cornwallis in late , and the senior Laurens had proceeded to the Netherlands to continue loan negotiations. Laurens returned from France in time to see the French fleet arrive and to join Washington in Virginia at the Siege of Yorktown.
He was given command of a battalion of light infantry on October 1, , when its commander was killed.
Laurens, under the command of Colonel Alexander Hamilton, led the battalion in the storming of Redoubt No. British troops surrendered on October 17, , and Washington appointed Laurens as the American commissioner for drafting formal terms of the British surrender. Laurens returned to South Carolina, where he continued to serve in the Continental Army under General Nathanael Greene until his death.
As head of Greene's "intelligence department", stationed on the outskirts of the city near Wappoo Creek,  Laurens created and operated a network of spies who tracked British operations in and around Charleston, and was given responsibility for guarding Greene's lines of secret communication with the British-occupied city.
On August 27, , at the age of 27, Laurens was shot from his saddle during the Battle of the Combahee River , as one of the last casualties of the Revolutionary War. Laurens died in what General Greene described sadly as "a paltry little skirmish" with a foraging party,  only a few weeks before the British finally withdrew from Charleston. Laurens had been confined to bed at Wappoo Creek with a raging fever for several days,  possibly due to malaria.
Greene, and, in disregard of his orders and the important duties with which he had been charged — a practice which the loose discipline of the American forces rendered not unusual — put off for the scene of action. Gist had learned that British troops under Major William Brereton had already captured a ferry and crossed the river, in search of rice to feed their garrison. Laurens was given orders, at his own request, to take a small force further downriver to man a redoubt at Chehaw Point, where they could fire on the British as they retreated. Laurens and his troops stopped for the night at a plantation house near the Combahee River.
Leading a force of fifty Delaware infantrymen, and an artillery captain with a howitzer, Laurens rode toward Chehaw Point. When the enemy rose to fire, Laurens ordered an immediate charge, despite the British having superior numbers and the stronger position. According to William McKennan, a captain under Laurens' command, Laurens appeared "anxious to attack the enemy previous to the main body coming up," gambling that his troops, "although few in numbers, [would be] sufficient to enable him to gain a laurel for his brow" before the end of the fighting.
As Laurens led the charge, the British immediately opened fire, and Laurens fell from his horse fatally wounded. Laurens was buried near the site of the battle, at William Stock's plantation where he had spent the evening before his death. The Laurens family sold their plantation in the 19th century, and in it was purchased by publisher Henry Luce and his wife Clare Boothe Luce. In , the Luces donated a large part of the former plantation, including an extensive landscape garden, to the Trappists for use as a monastery.
Her father, one of Henry Laurens' business agents, was a mentor and family friend whose home Laurens had frequently visited during his years in London. Laurens and his new wife moved from London to a home in Chelsea, but Laurens was zealous in his patriotism and unwilling to remain in England, believing that honor and duty required him to fight in the American Revolution. His pregnant wife, unable to risk a months-long  journey by sea during wartime, stayed behind with her family in London.
Laurens' only child, their daughter Frances Eleanor Laurens — , was born c. January and baptized on February 18, Laurens had one grandson, Francis Henderson Jr. As a young man in Geneva, from ages 16 to 19, Laurens "never had difficulty attracting women and men", while reserving "his primary emotional commitments for other men. Massey, this period "marked the beginning of a pattern; he continually centered his life around homosocial attachments to other men. Shortly after his marriage, while in Washington's camp, Laurens met and became extremely close friends with Alexander Hamilton.
They exchanged many letters during the several years when different assignments and Laurens' capture by the British kept them apart; for example, when the terms of Laurens' parole prevented him from being present at Hamilton's wedding to Elizabeth Schuyler in December , even though Hamilton had invited him.
Stating that "one must tread gingerly in approaching this matter," Hamilton biographer Ron Chernow wrote that it is impossible to say "with any certainty" that Laurens and Hamilton were lovers, noting that such an affair would have required the exercise of "extraordinary precautions" because sodomy was a capital offense throughout the colonies at the time. In contrast to Hamilton's effusive letters, surviving letters from Laurens to Hamilton were notably less frequent and less passionately worded, although some letters written by Laurens have been lost or may have been destroyed.
Massey has dismissed speculations on John Laurens' supposed homosexuality and on a Laurens-Hamilton relationship as unsubstantiated, concluding, "Their relationship was platonic, a bond formed by their devotion to the Revolution and mutual ambition for fame. Laurens is depicted heroically as a supporting character in the musical Hamilton.
Anthony Ramos originated the role in both the Broadway and off-Broadway productions. I feel the deepest affliction at the news we have just received at the loss of our dear and inestimable friend Laurens. His career of virtue is at end. How strangely are human affairs conducted, that so many excellent qualities could not ensure a more happy fate!
The world will feel the loss of a man who has left few like him behind; and America, of a citizen whose heart realized that patriotism of which others only talk. I feel the loss of a friend whom I truly and most tenderly loved, and one of a very small number. In , Hamilton's son and biographer John Church Hamilton named his youngest son Laurens Hamilton , a name that continued to recur over several generations in that branch of the Hamilton family.
Nathanael Greene, in general orders announcing the death of Laurens, wrote "The army has lost a brave officer and the public a worthy citizen. The situation came to a crisis in October , as Sharif Hussein demanded an immediate commitment from Britain, with the threat that he would otherwise throw his weight behind the Ottomans.
The British replied with a letter from High Commissioner McMahon that was generally agreeable, while reserving commitments concerning the Mediterranean coastline and Holy Land. In the spring of , Lawrence was dispatched to Mesopotamia to assist in relieving the Siege of Kut by some combination of starting an Arab uprising and bribing Ottoman officials. This mission produced no useful result. Further, it implied that the Arabs would have to conquer Syria's four great cities if they were to have any sort of state there: Damascus, Homs, Hama, and Aleppo.
It is unclear at what point Lawrence became aware of the treaty's contents. The Arab Revolt began in June , but it bogged down after a few successes, with a real risk that the Ottoman forces would advance along the coast of the Red Sea and recapture Mecca. In November, S. Newcombe was assigned to lead a permanent British liaison to Faisal's staff. Lawrence's most important contributions to the Arab Revolt were in the area of strategy and liaison with British armed forces, but he also participated personally in several military engagements:.
Lawrence made a mile personal journey northward in June , on the way to Aqaba, visiting Ras Baalbek , the outskirts of Damascus, and Azraq, Jordan. He met Arab nationalists, counselling them to avoid revolt until the arrival of Faisal's forces, and he attacked a bridge to create the impression of guerrilla activity.
His findings were regarded by the British as extremely valuable and there was serious consideration of awarding him a Victoria Cross ; in the end, he was invested as a Companion of the Order of the Bath and promoted to Major. Lawrence travelled regularly between British headquarters and Faisal, co-ordinating military action.
The Sharif of Mecca has given him the status of one of his sons, and he is just the finely tempered steel that supports the whole structure of our influence in Arabia. He is a very inspiring gentleman adventurer. The chief elements of the Arab strategy which Faisal and Lawrence developed were to avoid capturing Medina , and to extend northwards through Maan and Dera'a to Damascus and beyond.
Faisal wanted to lead regular attacks against the Ottomans, but Lawrence persuaded him to drop that tactic. The value of the tribes is defensive only and their real sphere is guerilla warfare. They are intelligent, and very lively, almost reckless, but too individualistic to endure commands, or fight in line, or to help each other. It would, I think, be possible to make an organized force out of them. Our text-books do not apply to its conditions at all. Medina was an attractive target for the revolt as Islam's second holiest site, and because its Ottoman garrison was weakened by disease and isolation.
It is not known when Lawrence learned the details of Sykes-Picot, nor if or when he briefed Faisal on what he knew,   However, there is good reason to think that both these things happened, and earlier rather than later. In particular, the Arab strategy of northward extension makes perfect sense given the Sykes-Picot language that spoke of an independent Arab entity in Syria, which would only be granted if the Arabs liberated the territory themselves. The French, and some of their British Liaison officers, were specifically uncomfortable about the northward movement, as it would weaken French colonial claims.
In , Lawrence proposed a joint action with the Arab irregulars and forces including Auda Abu Tayi , who had previously been in the employ of the Ottomans, against the strategically located but lightly defended    town of Aqaba on the Red Sea. Aqaba could have been attacked from the sea, but the narrow defiles leading through the mountains were strongly defended and would have been very difficult to assault.
Lawrence carefully avoided informing his British superiors about the details of the planned inland attack, due to concern that it would be blocked as contrary to French interests. Lawrence now held a powerful position as an adviser to Faisal and a person who had Allenby's confidence, as Allenby acknowledged after the war:. I gave him a free hand. His cooperation was marked by the utmost loyalty, and I never had anything but praise for his work, which, indeed, was invaluable throughout the campaign. He was the mainspring of the Arab movement and knew their language, their manners and their mentality.
Lawrence describes an episode on 20 November while reconnoitering Dera'a in disguise, when he was captured by the Ottoman military, heavily beaten, and sexually abused by the local bey and his guardsmen,  though he does not specify the nature of the sexual contact. Some scholars have stated that he exaggerated the severity of the injuries that he suffered,  or alleged that the episode never actually happened. Mack , and Jeremy Wilson have argued that this episode had strong psychological effects on Lawrence, which may explain some of his unconventional behaviour in later life.
Lawrence ended his account of the episode in Seven Pillars of Wisdom with the statement: "In Deraa that night the citadel of my integrity had been irrevocably lost. Lawrence was involved in the build-up to the capture of Damascus in the final weeks of the war, but he was not present at the city's formal surrender, much to his disappointment. Faisal's rule as king, however, came to an abrupt end in , after the battle of Maysaloun when the French Forces of General Gouraud entered Damascus under the command of General Mariano Goybet , destroying Lawrence's dream of an independent Arabia.
During the closing years of the war, Lawrence sought to convince his superiors in the British government that Arab independence was in their interests, but he met with mixed success. The secret Sykes-Picot Agreement between France and Britain contradicted the promises of independence that he had made to the Arabs and frustrated his work. In , Lowell Thomas went to Jerusalem where he met Lawrence, "whose enigmatic figure in Arab uniform fired his imagination", in the words of author Rex Hall. His lectures were "supported by moving pictures of veiled women, Arabs in their picturesque robes, camels, and dashing Bedouin cavalry", and he was well received by his audiences at Madison Square Garden in New York.
He was invited to take his show to England, and he agreed to do so provided that he was personally invited by the King and provided the use of either Drury Lane or Covent Garden. He opened at Covent Garden on 14 August and continued for hundreds of lectures, "attended by the highest in the land".
Lawrence returned to the United Kingdom a full colonel. The pilot and co-pilot were killed; Lawrence survived with a broken shoulder blade and two broken ribs. In August , Lowell Thomas launched a photo show in London entitled With Allenby in Palestine which included a lecture, dancing, and music  and engaged in " Orientalism ", depicting the Middle East as exotic, mysterious, sensuous, and violent. Thomas' shows made the previously obscure Lawrence into a household name.
He hated bureaucratic work, writing on 21 May to Robert Graves: "I wish I hadn't gone out there: the Arabs are like a page I have turned over; and sequels are rotten things. I'm locked up here: office every day and much of it". Lawrence had a sinister reputation in France during his lifetime and even today as an implacable "enemy of France", the man who was constantly stirring up the Syrians to rebel against French rule throughout the s.
Johns , later known as the author of the Biggles series of novels. Lawrence admitted that this was so and that he had provided false documents. He left, but returned some time later with an RAF messenger who carried a written order that Johns must accept Lawrence. He changed his name to T. Shaw and joined the Royal Tank Corps later that year. He was unhappy there and repeatedly petitioned to rejoin the RAF, which finally readmitted him in August At that time, he was forced to return to Britain after rumours began to circulate that he was involved in espionage activities.
He purchased several small plots of land in Chingford , built a hut and swimming pool there, and visited frequently. The hut was removed in when the Chingford Urban District Council acquired the land; it was given to the City of London Corporation which re-erected it in the grounds of The Warren, Loughton. Lawrence's tenure of the Chingford land has now been commemorated by a plaque fixed on the sighting obelisk on Pole Hill.
He specialised in high-speed boats and professed happiness, and he left the service with considerable regret at the end of his enlistment in March In the inter-war period, the RAF's Marine Craft Section began to commission air-sea rescue launches capable of higher speeds and greater capacity. The arrival of high-speed craft into the MCS was driven in part by Lawrence. He had previously witnessed a seaplane crew drowning when the seaplane tender sent to their rescue was too slow in arriving. These boats had a range of miles when cruising at 24 knots and could achieve a top speed of 29 knots.
Lawrence was a keen motorcyclist and owned eight Brough Superior motorcycles at different times. He read an account of Eugene Vinaver 's discovery of the Winchester Manuscript of the Morte in The Times in , and he drove by motorcycle from Manchester to Winchester to meet Vinaver. He was 46, just two months after leaving military service. A dip in the road obstructed his view of two boys on their bicycles; he swerved to avoid them, lost control, and was thrown over the handlebars. One of the doctors attending him was neurosurgeon Hugh Cairns , who consequently began a long study of the loss of life by motorcycle dispatch riders through head injuries.
His research led to the use of crash helmets by both military and civilian motorcyclists. The Moreton estate borders Bovington Camp , and Lawrence bought it from his cousins the Frampton family. He had been a frequent visitor to their home Okers Wood House, and had corresponded with Louisa Frampton for years. Lawrence's mother arranged with the Framptons to have his body buried in their family plot in the separate burial ground of St Nicholas' Church, Moreton.
Mourners included Winston Churchill , E. Forster , Lady Astor , and Lawrence's youngest brother Arnold. Lawrence was a prolific writer throughout his life, a large portion of which was epistolary ; he often sent several letters a day, and several collections of his letters have been published. He met Joseph Conrad and commented perceptively on his works.
The many letters that he sent to Shaw's wife Charlotte are revealing as to his character. Lawrence published three major texts in his lifetime. Homer 's Odyssey and The Forest Giant were translations, the latter an otherwise forgotten work of French fiction. He received a flat fee for the second translation, and negotiated a generous fee plus royalties for the first. Lawrence's major work is Seven Pillars of Wisdom , an account of his war experiences.
dynipalo.tk: The Body in the River (John Lawrence Book 1) eBook: Sam Morgan: Kindle Store. Format: Kindle Edition; File Size: 75 KB; Print Length: 15 pages; Publisher: Sam Morgan (24 December ); Sold by: Amazon Asia-Pacific Holdings Private.
In , he was elected to a seven-year research fellowship at All Souls College, Oxford , providing him with support while he worked on the book. Certain parts of the book also serve as essays on military strategy, Arabian culture and geography, and other topics. He rewrote Seven Pillars of Wisdom three times, once "blind" after he lost the manuscript while changing trains at Reading railway station.
There are many alleged "embellishments" in Seven Pillars , though some allegations have been disproved with time, most definitively in Jeremy Wilson 's authorised biography. However, Lawrence's own notebooks refute his claim to have crossed the Sinai Peninsula from Aqaba to the Suez Canal in just 49 hours without any sleep.
In reality, this famous camel ride lasted for more than 70 hours and was interrupted by two long breaks for sleeping, which Lawrence omitted when he wrote his book. In the preface, Lawrence acknowledged George Bernard Shaw 's help in editing the book. Lawrence was afraid that the public would think that he would make a substantial income from the book, and he stated that it was written as a result of his war service.
He vowed not to take any money from it, and indeed he did not, as the sale price was one third of the production costs,  leaving him in substantial debt. Revolt in the Desert was an abridged version of Seven Pillars that he began in and that was published in March in both limited and trade editions. Again he vowed not to take any fees from the publication, partly to appease the subscribers to Seven Pillars who had paid dearly for their editions. By the fourth reprint in , the debt from Seven Pillars was paid off.
As Lawrence left for military service in India at the end of , he set up the "Seven Pillars Trust" with his friend D.
Hogarth as a trustee, in which he made over the copyright and any surplus income of Revolt in the Desert. He later told Hogarth that he had "made the Trust final, to save myself the temptation of reviewing it, if Revolt turned out a best seller. The resultant trust paid off the debt, and Lawrence then invoked a clause in his publishing contract to halt publication of the abridgment in the United Kingdom. However, he allowed both American editions and translations, which resulted in a substantial flow of income.
The trust paid income either into an educational fund for children of RAF officers who lost their lives or were invalided as a result of service, or more substantially into the RAF Benevolent Fund. For this, he worked from a notebook that he kept while enlisted, writing of the daily lives of enlisted men and his desire to be a part of something larger than himself. The book is stylistically very different from Seven Pillars of Wisdom , using sparse prose as opposed to the complicated syntax found in Seven Pillars.
It was published posthumously, edited by his brother Professor A. After Lawrence's death, A. Lawrence inherited Lawrence's estate and his copyrights as the sole beneficiary. In , A. Lawrence split the remaining assets of the estate, giving Clouds Hill and many copies of less substantial or historical letters to the National Trust , and then set up two trusts to control interests in his brother's residual copyrights. He assigned the copyright in The Mint and all Lawrence's letters to the Letters and Symposium Trust, [ citation needed ] which he edited and published in the book T.
Lawrence by his Friends in A substantial amount of income went directly to the RAF Benevolent Fund and to archaeological, environmental, and academic projects. The two trusts were amalgamated in , and the unified trust acquired all the remaining rights to Lawrence's works that it had not owned on the death of A. Lawrence in , plus rights to all of A. Lawrence's works. Works published more than 20 years after his death were protected for 50 years from publication. Lawrence's biographers have discussed his sexuality at considerable length, and this discussion has spilled into the popular press.
His friends have expressed the opinion that he was asexual,   and Lawrence himself specifically denied any personal experience of sex in multiple private letters. Guy,  but his biographers and contemporaries found them unconvincing. Lawrence was never specific about the identity of "S. The most popular theory is that S. Lawrence lived in a period of strong official opposition to homosexuality, but his writing on the subject was tolerant.
He wrote to Charlotte Shaw , "I've seen lots of man-and-man loves: very lovely and fortunate some of them were. In horror of such sordid commerce [diseased female prostitutes] our youths began indifferently to slake one another's few needs in their own clean bodies—a cold convenience that, by comparison, seemed sexless and even pure.
Later, some began to justify this sterile process, and swore that friends quivering together in the yielding sand with intimate hot limbs in supreme embrace, found there hidden in the darkness a sensual co-efficient of the mental passion which was welding our souls and spirits in one flaming effort [to secure Arab independence]. Several, thirsting to punish appetites they could not wholly prevent, took a savage pride in degrading the body, and offered themselves fiercely in any habit which promised physical pain or filth.
There is considerable evidence that Lawrence was a masochist. He wrote in his description of the Dera'a beating that "a delicious warmth, probably sexual, was swelling through me," and he also included a detailed description of the guards' whip in a style typical of masochists' writing. Psychologist John E. Mack sees a possible connection between Lawrence's masochism and the childhood beatings that he had received from his mother  for routine misbehaviours. A bronze bust of Lawrence by Eric Kennington was placed in the crypt of St Paul's Cathedral , London, on 29 January , alongside the tombs of Britain's greatest military leaders.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. British archaeologist, military officer, and diplomat. For the manga series, see T. Lawrence manga. For the film, see Lawrence of Arabia film. CB DSO. St Nicholas, Moreton , Dorset. Main article: Arab Revolt. Main article: Battle of Aqaba. Main article: Seven Pillars of Wisdom. The London Gazette Supplement. The London Gazette.
The Lilliput Press. Fair Winds, Retrieved 1 May The Companion Guide to Wales. Companion Guides, Retrieved 17 April Lawrence: from dream to legend". Lawrence Studies. Retrieved 25 October Lawrence Studies". Archived from the original on 29 September Retrieved 9 September Clockmaking in Oxfordshire — 3rd ed. Oxford: Museum of the History of Science. Lawrence and France: Friends or Foes?
The Medievalism of Lawrence of Arabia. Penn State Press, Lawrence wrote to his parents "We are obviously only meant as red herrings to give an archaeological colour to a political job. Archived from the original on 18 October In note 24, Wilson argues that Lawrence must have known about Sykes-Picot prior to his relationship with Faisal, contrary to a later statement. Also see note 43, where the origin of the repositioning idea is examined closely. The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 29 March Lawrence: Strategist" pages — from The T. Volume IV. July—August National Archives, Kew London. The Guardian.
Setting the Desert on Fire: T. Lawrence and Britain's Secret War in Arabia History Today.
The Legacy of Lawrence of Arabia. The Desert Hath Pearls. Melbourne: Hawthorn Press. Archived from the original PDF on 29 March London Borough of Hillingdon. Retrieved 12 September Retrieved 11 April The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Motorcycles. New Burlington Books.
Retrieved 21 October Imperial War Museums.