Inglise rocklaulja Robert Planti kontserdist The essay approaches the lyric sequence written by Sir Robert Sidney in the Elizabethan age, by mainly exploring its unique formal structure, which encloses an alternative sequence formed by a re-numbering of several poems. Rodrigueze filmist.
Astronaut Robert L. Crippen prepares for underwater training session. Crippen, STS-7 crew commander, adjusts his extravehicular mobility unit's EMU gloves prior to donning his helmet for a training session in the weightless environment test facility WETF. Cytogenetic diagnosis of Roberts SC phocomelia syndrome: First Roberts SC phocomelia syndrome is an autosomal recessive developmental disorder characterized by pre and postnatal growth retardation, microcephaly, craniofacial anomalies,.
Two autographs given to author by professor Cecile Dewitt and Robert Hawking the son of Steven Hawking for his father in during the Quantum Gravity Seminar in Moscow are presented. The point of departure is the present descriptions of Nozick s philosophy. Mostly these depictions are based upon three postulates: That Nozick is an extreme individualist, that the libertarian Anarchy, State, and Utopia Tetra-amelia and splenogonadal fusion in Roberts syndrome. Ravel, T. Roberts -SC phocomelia syndrome comprises limb deficiencies of variable severity, facial clefts, and other anomalies.
Tetra-amelia may also be associated with facial clefts and similar anomalies. We report on a female infant with severe tetra-amelia, micrognathia, cleft palate, splenogonadal fusion, and premature centromere separation. We propose that this represents the severe expression of the Roberts -SC phocomelia syndrome. Lieutenant General Robert L. Bullard: Understanding Small and Large Conflicts.
Publishing, Herbert Aldersmith spent his entire working life, from the age of 23 years until his retirement at 65 years, as Resident Medical Officer to Christ's Hospital School. It was a crucial period in the school's history, from the overdue reforms of the late Victorian era to its historic move from the City of London to Sussex in He became an acknowledged authority on ringworm and also published extensively on the other great interest of his life, the British-Israel Society.
He was the prime mover in founding the first-ever professional association of school doctors in Hyland [Book Review. The political upheavals in Europe during the 20th century provide a dramatic backdrop for the narrative. At the same time, the categorization of the experience reflects the ideational position, the worldview of the language user. American Prometheus. The Triumph and Tragedy of J. Biography; J. Die Biographie.
A definitive portrait of legendary scientist J. Robert Oppenheimer, the ''father'' of the atomic bomb, discusses his seminal role in the twentieth-century scientific world, as well as his lesser-known roles as family man, supposed communist, and head of Princeton's Institute for Advanced Studies. Robert Oppenheimer , der ''Vater der Atombombe'', zaehlt zu den schillerndsten Figuren der juengeren Zeitgeschichte.
Sherwin den Pulitzer-Preis. Exemplarisch lassen sie das Drama eines Forschers lebendig werden, der sich zwischen Erkenntnisdrang und ethischer Verantwortung entscheiden muss. Juli die erste Atombombe gezuendet wurde. Kurz darauf starben in Hiroshima und Nagasaki mehr als Menschen durch die neue ''Wunderwaffe'' - die Menschheit war ins Atomzeitalter eingetreten. Erschuettert von der Zerstoerungskraft seiner Schoepfung, engagierte sich Oppenheimer fortan gegen den Einsatz nuklearer Waffen.
Das machte ihn im Amerika der McCarthy-Aera verdaechtig. Sein Privatleben wurde an die Oeffentlichkeit gezerrt, seine Wohnung verwanzt, sein Telefon abgehoert. Erst rehabilitierte ihn Praesident Kennedy. Kevles, D. It examines, in particular, the role played by Herbert Hoover, both behind the scenes and in an effort to affect the repeal of the Stevenson scheme and at the same time to encourage and support the development of new sources of rubber under the control of American producers.
During the period rubber producing countries were confronted by the specter of overproduction. The existence of even a short term oversupply coupled with the business slump, a reaction from the war, led to a decline in the price of rubber. British producers succeeded in inducing the British Colonial authorities to support a scheme whereby rubber exports would be regulated in order to bring about an increase in the price of rubber. This plan, developed by the Stevenson Committee, called for a small minimum tax on all exports.
Moreover, it soughtto limit production by establishing a quota based on the actual production of rubber during the growing season. A progressive tax was applied to exports beyond standard production. American reaction to the scheme was varied. Secretary of Commerce Hoover, while publicly stating that the price of rubber had been low and was supportive of efforts to regulate production, behind the scenes showed a great deal of concern about the actions of the British government in regulating a commodity of which the United States was the single largest consumer.
He was also linked, by some, to the idea that Great Britain sought to pay its war debt to the United States through the application of this tax. He was not opposed to regulating the supply of rubber, but only to the involvement of a government in the process, especially when it affected American producers and consumers. In response he proposed a scheme. Obituary: Robert C. Bless - Surrounded by his loving family, Robert Charles Bless died at home on November 29th, three days before his 88th birthday.
He was born in Ithaca, NY on Dec. Bob spent many summers on the family farm in the South of France, where he gained a great pride and joy in his French heritage, large extended family, and mother tongue. As a child growing up in Gainesville, FL, Bob's first job was snake wrangling, earning 10 cents per foot, with an added bonus for the more venomous species.
Young Robbie took daily adventures in the Florida woods and swamps, armed only with pockets full of pecans and oranges. He enjoyed spending time at the family's lake cabin, where he learned to sail and helped his father plant acres of trees to grow their timber plantation. As a first generation immigrant, Bob's father received a PhD in physics, which inspired Bob to pursue an extensive educational route in astrophysics.
Bob excelled in academics, graduating high school at the age of 16 and the University of Florida B. His path to graduate school was interrupted by a diagnosis of tuberculosis that forced him into a Florida sanitorium for one year. During this time, Bob made the most of what he described as the most dismal part of life by advocating for patient rights, initiating an inter-sanitorium newsletter, and gaining skills and experience in community organization and leadership - qualities that would later inform his leadership in academe.
After being one of the first successfully treated tuberculosis patients in the US, Bob went on to earn a M. It was there that Bob met Diane McQueen. Despite Bob's Dodge Dart and what has been described as the worst first date in. The article presents the first Herbert Marcuse reflection towards the separation between art and life, which is developed in his doctoral dissertation, Der deutsche Kunstlerroman The German Artist Novel.
The dissonance between the world of art and that of life per pass the philosopher thought and all his future works. The infinite inner richness of human imagination will always be in aesthetic and social conflict with the so-called real world. Obituary: Peter Robert Wilson, It is with great sadness that I report the passing of Peter Robert Wilson, a well-known and well-loved figure in the solar physics community. Peter was on the faculty of the Department of Applied Mathematics at the University of Sydney for 39 years, and Chair of the department for 24 of these years.
He was the author or co-author of more than 80 scientific research papers and a book, Solar and Stellar Activity Cycles , published by Cambridge University Press. He died suddenly of a heart attack, at his home in Glebe, Australia, in the early morning of 11 November Peter was an organizer of, and participant in, many international conferences and workshops. Most of his work was in the field of solar physics, but he also did some work on the philosophy of science and on tides.
Peter came from a line of mathematicians. His father, Robert Wilson, immigrated to Australia from Glasgow in , and became a mathematics teacher at Scotch College, a private school in Melbourne. There his name was changed to 'Bill' because 'Bob' was already taken. In a similar vein, he claimed ancestry traced back to the eighteenth-century Scottish mathematician Alexander Wilson, Professor of Astronomy at the University of Glasgow.
That Wilson is famous in the solar physics community for his discovery, known as the "Wilson Effect," of the photospheric depressions associated with sunspots. Peter himself could not resist writing a paper on this subject, and was delighted when the bait was taken by some less-informed colleagues who chided him for "naming an effect after himself.
Obituary: Robert Fleischer, He specialized in geophysics and solar-terrestrial relations. Fleischer joined the faculty at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute advancing from Assistant to Full professor in As Director of the RPI Observatory, Fleischer attempted to bring modern astronomy to the institutions in the Albany area by procuring the funds to build a radio telescope. It is a testament to his character that without his enormous energy, organizational, and fundraising abilities, the radio telescope project languished after he left.
Fleischer is most notably remembered as the head of the Astronomy Section at the National Science Foundation. He brought astronomy into its own at NSF and involved the community in a major way through use of advisory committees. He was dedicated to helping the astronomical community understand the funding system, the political environment, and the various factors in how money is allocated.
Fleischer truly believed in the concept that scientists should be making the important decisions about their field. He was instrumental in injecting science into the oversight of the National Observatories. Relations with the community say a lot about the man, the complexities of his character, and the forces that drove him. Fleischer was passionate in his beliefs and in his devotion to doing the best for astronomy. His strong approach and belief in himself served him well in many ways, but caused him grief. Roberts a bipolar nebula with OH emission. Roberts 22 is a bipolar reflection nebula illuminated by a hidden A2 Ie star.
Most of its energy is radiated at infrared wavelengths. It also shows strong OH maser emission OH But the system contains no late-type star. This remarkable assemblage of attributes makes Roberts 22 unique; however, it is probably a key member of the newly-recognized population of bipolar nebulae. From an analysis of the properties of Roberts 22 some published interpretations of other bipolar nebulae are questioned, in particular the derivation of spectral types for their underlying stars by the assumption of photo-ionization of the gas, and their evolutionary description as proto-planetary nebulae.
Robert Bourassa's contributions to the hydroelectric development at James Bay were acknowledged with the inauguration of a park in the ex-prime minister's name. Phase 1 of the James Bay hydroelectric project constituted the world's biggest construction site, employing more than , people from beginning to project completion. The James Bay project allowed Hydro-Quebec to gain one of the world's largest electric power utilities and to gain significant competitive edge over its competitors.
The Robert Bourassa Park contains a picnic area and a visitor interpretation centre which describes the history of the project. The complex consists of 65 turbines which produce 15, megawatts of electricity. Descartes, M. All previously published cases with similar double trisomy have presented with features of trisomy 18 syndrome. The chromosome analysis done at birth revealed the double trisomy; parental chromosomes were normal.
The proband presented with microbrachycephaly, unilateral cleft lip and palate, choanal atresia, midfacial capillary hemanioma, thin nares, shallow orbits, malformed ears, sparse hair, hypomelia of the upper limbs, rocker-bottom feet, auricular septal defect and agenesis of the corpus callosum. Characteristic features of Roberts syndrome included hypomelia, midfacial defects, and severe growth deficiency.
Among the many different features reported in the literature for patients with trisomy 18 syndrome, the most consistent were growth deficiency, clenched fingers and congenital heart defects e. Sporadic aneuploidy involving different chromosomes has been found in lymphocyte cultures from some Roberts syndrome patients and is considered by some authors as a mitotic mutant.
This aneuploidy is most likely to be chromosome gain. The simultaneous occurrence of trisomy X and 18 is extremely rare with only 11 cases having been reported in the literature. Our patient is unique since she has the double trisomy in addition to the characteristic features of Roberts syndrome. Few astronomy communication projects are as well known or as widely disseminated as the Astronomy Picture of the Day or APOD for short.
Since its creation in , it has popularised thousands of images and helped to explain the cosmos through informative captions. Impressively, the site shows no signs of slowing down and has amassed many loyal supporters. This success can be attributed to the two astronomers behind the project: Robert Nemiroff and Jerry Bonnell. He was awarded a Westinghouse Science scholarship and attended the Carnegie Institute of Technology later Carnegie Mellon University where his interest turned to physics and led to a BS in Physics after transfer to Northwestern University.
The early death of his wife led him to take a salaried position in the Physics Department of Colorado College in Colorado Springs so as to better care for their young daughter. There, a chance invitation from Dr. Juan del Regato to teach physics to residents at the Penrose Cancer Hospital introduced him to Medical Physics, and he decided to enter the field. Joseph Rotblat, where I first met him, and where he taught himself statistics. He returned to Penrose as a clinical medical physicist, also largely self-taught. In he formalized an evolving interest in statistical analysis as Professor of Radiology and Head of the Division of Physics and Statistics at the College of Medicine of the University of South Alabama in Mobile, AL where he remained for the rest of his career.
He also served as the first Director of their Bio-Statistics and Epidemiology Core Unit working in part on a sickle-cell disease. After retirement he remained active as Professor Emeritus. Don served for several years as a consultant to the Nuclear. There were 10 males and 3 female, ranging in age from 20 to 60 years with an average age of The fractures occurred on the right side in 9 patients and on the left side in 4 patients.
Three cases had the complication of medial malleolar fracture. Ten cases had the complication of medial and lateral malleolar fracture. Totally 11 cases were made calcaneal skeletal traction, and all the were made CT with three-dimensional image reconstruction. Two cases were treated with emergency operation.
Eleven cases were treated with selective operation. The operation time was 5 hours days after injury. Result: The average duration of follow-up was There was skin necrosis in one cases, no incision infection, malunion and nonunion of the fractures and loss of reduction.
The result was excellent in 4 cases, good in 5 cases, fair in 3 cases and 1 cases in poor, and the overall excellent or good rate was Avascular necrosis occurred in 3 cases Traumatic arthritis was found in 5 cases Conclusion: The effect of surgical treatment for ipsilateral. Influence and canonical supremacy: an analysis of how George Herbert Mead demoted Charles Horton Cooley in the sociological canon. This analysis assesses the factors underlying Charles Horton Cooley's place in the sociological canon as they relate to George Herbert Mead's puzzling diatribe-echoed in secondary accounts-against Cooley's social psychology and view of the self published scarcely a year after his death.
The illocutionary act of publishing his critique stands as an effort to project the image of Mead's intellectual self and enhance his standing among sociologists within and outside the orbit of the University of Chicago. It expressed Mead's ambivalence toward his precursor Cooley, whose influence he never fully acknowledged. In addition, it typifies the contending fractal distinctions of the scientifically discursive versus literary styles of Mead and Cooley, who both founded the interpretive sociological tradition.
The contrasting styles and attitudes toward writing of the two figures are discussed, and their implications for the problems of scale that have stymied the symbolic interactionist tradition are explored. The stylistic analysis of Robert Browning's poem "Patriot into Traitor" is done by using graphological, phonological, morphological and lexico-syntactic patterns.
This analysis is helpful in decoding the underlying meanings of the poem.
It clearly brings to surface what the poet really wants to impart. Robert Sternberg's mental self-government theory and its Robert Sternberg's mental self-government theory and its contribution to our understanding of first-year distance learners' multiple thinking style preferences. This intelligence the perception we have of information systems and the way we manage them will influence the way we think and learn. This also applies to Zombiteema kasvavast populaarsusest ning intervjuu koomiksikirjutajaga.
Finds, from a literary perspective, Stevenson's collection located on the boundaries of romanticism and modernism. Educator Robert Coles argues that there is a need for a basis on which to teach and cultivate moral awareness in parents and children. Active parenting requires both inner-directed and outer-directed focuses to take advantage of the everyday events through which morality is developed.
De 'wraak van de geografie' volgens Robert D. De Amerikaanse publicist Robert D.
Kaplan heeft een nieuwe bestseller, De wraak van de geografie, waarin hij het belang van geografie voor de internationale politiek uit de doeken doet. Zijn roep om meer aandacht voor geografie is echter erg eenzijdig en een miskenning van alles waar ons vak voor. Robert Hooke's "Micrographia" holds an important place in the history of scientific visual rhetoric. Hooke's accomplishment lies not only in a stunning array of engravings, but also in a "pedagogy of sight"--a rhetorical framework that instructs readers how to view images in accordance with an ideological or epistemic program.
Hooke not…. The overwhelming majority of important papers in physics are written by physicists. But the physician Julius Robert Mayer , see photo did a valid theoretical calculation of the mechanical equivalent of heat just before Joule reported on his results from his well-known paddle-wheel experiments. Joule is well-known to physics people and…. Cailliau together with his colleague Sir Tim Berners-Lee invented the World Wide Web, making the internet accessible so it could grow from an academic tool to a mass communication medium.
The Nova production "Percy Julian--Forgotten Genius" included the very public disagreement between Percy Julian, an unknown American chemist, and Robert Robinson, possibly the best known organic chemist of the day, as to the identity of "eserethole", the key intermediate for the synthesis of the alkaloid physostigmine.
The Nova production,…. Robert Schuman, principal architect of the European Union. A tangible proof of the meaning and scope of human flourishing that can change not only organizations but also entire societies, is given by Robert Schuman, the French Minister of Foreign Affairs who launched the Schuman Declaration that gave birth to the EU.
His leitmotiv was to be a. A biography of Robert de Kersauson, French volunteer with the One of the most colourful foreign volunteers in the Boer army in was Robert de Kersauson de Pennendreff; young, handsome, gallant and devoted to the Boer cause until the bitter end of the war. His love for South Africa brought him after an absence of almost 40 years back to this country to find a quiet place to Robert Spitzer and psychiatric classification: technical challenges and ethical dilemmas. Dr Robert Leopold Spitzer May 22, December 25, , the architect of modern psychiatric diagnostic criteria and classification, died recently at the age of 83 in Seattle.
The aims of education, and the appropriate means of realising them, are a recurring preoccupation of utopian authors. The utopian socialists Robert Owen and Charles Fourier both place human nature at the core of their educational views, and both see education as central to their wider objective of social and political…. Robert Aymar seals the last interconnect in the LHC. The LHC completes the circle. Jean-Philippe Tock, leader of the Interconnections team, tightens the last bolt Photos Robert Nozick's entitlement theory of justice: a critique Nnajiofor The burden of this paper is to critique Robert Nozick's entitlement theory of justice which was drafted as an argument against traditional distribution theories.
Nozick's theory of justice claims that whether a distribution is just or not depend entirely on how it came about. By contrast, justice according to equality, need, desert or Luik: Respect, Robert! Registrant , of Fort This paper examines how Schuller instrumentalized broader imbrications of political contexts to change or manipulate the traditional religious subject.
My analysis challenges established readings of religious architecture as being interiorized manifestations. To do so, it poses the following questions: how does this meta-geographical dimension shed new light on questions of traditional architectural aesthetics in Protestant architecture? What spaces and politics does it produce? Does the third nature have a history of its own? Antes de los Estudios Culturales. Robert Warshow y la experiencia.
This paper studies the influence of the experience concept by Robert Warshow. Warshow is the American counterpoint to theories developed by Walter Benjamin in Europe. Although both insisted in the poverty of experience, as a result of technique, Warshow knew how to introduce nuances that influenced intellectuals in New York as Cultural Studies emerged.
Quality of life research: interview with Professor Robert Cummins. Full Text Available Health-related quality of life HRQOL is a fundamental concept in the field of clinical medicine and has been studied during the last years by psychologists, sociologists, economists and managers. Concerning the individuals, this incorporates physical and mental health cognitions, including sociodemographic factors, sexual functioning, fatigue, sleep disorders and functional status.
One of the most eminent experts in the world in the field of QOL is Prof. E-mail: robert. Robert Aymar receives one of the highest Finnish distinctions. This decoration, one of the highest of Finland, was presented in a ceremony by the Ambassador Hannu Himanen, Permanent Representative of Finland to the UN and other international organisations in Geneva.
The auriferous placer at Mount Robert , Pietersburg Greenstone belt. The Mount Robert gold placer near Potgietersrus occurs in coarse, matrix-supported conglomerates of the Uitkyk Formation within the Pietersburg greenstone belt. Sedimentological and mineralogical investigations indicate that the conglomerates and the ore minerals were derived from a greenstone provenance, and that they were deposited in a braided river environment within a rapidly subsiding trough.
The mineralogical composition of the Mount Robert ore closely resembles that of the Witwatersrand deposits. However, uraninite is absent, probably as a result of its complete removal by weathering processes. Remaining small uranium concentrations can still be detected within the conglomerates where they occur associated with grains of carbonaceous matter, leucoxene aggregates, and secondary iron-hydroxides. U3O8 values found in the conglomerates are given. Drawings of fossils by Robert Hooke and Richard Waller. The drawings of fossils by Robert Hooke and Richard Waller that were the basis of the engravings in Hooke's Posthumous works are published here for the first time.
The drawings show that both Hooke and Waller were proficient draftsmen with a keen eye for the details of petrified objects. Expanding the mutation and clinical spectrum of Roberts syndrome. Roberts syndrome and SC phocomelia syndrome are rare autosomal recessive genetic disorders representing the extremes of the spectrum of severity of the same condition, caused by mutations in ESCO2 gene. We report three new patients with Roberts syndrome from three unrelated consanguineous Egyptian families. All patients presented with growth retardation, mesomelic shortening of the limbs more in the upper than in the lower limbs and microcephaly.
Patients were subjected to clinical, cytogenetic and radiologic examinations. Cytogenetic analysis showed the characteristic premature separation of centromeres and puffing of heterochromatic regions. Further, sequencing of the ESCO2 gene identified a novel mutation c. All mutations were in homozygous state, in exon 3. The severity of the mesomelic shortening of the limbs and craniofacial anomalies showed variability among patients. Interestingly, patient 1 had abnormal skin hypopigmentation. Serial fetal ultrasound examinations and measurements of long bones diagnosed two affected fetuses in two of the studied families.
A literature review and case comparison was performed. In conclusion, we report a novel ESCO2 mutation and expand the clinical spectrum of Roberts syndrome. It presents the restatement of the anticapitalistic utopias of the XIX century — particularly the Marxist one. Keywords: Violence. Full Text Available Controversial as the underlying theology of metaphysical poetry may be, such poets as George Herbert and John Donne extensively resorted to the use of the biblical intertext, and they had a thorough knowlege of both the hermeneutics and the poetics of their time.
And yet they did not read Scripture literally, but, like their contemporaries, freely indulged in the practice of typology, while displaying a great mastery of such poetic devices as emblems or conceits. In this study, a few poems are closely examined. James L. West III, ed. The Cambridge Edition of the Works of F. Bruccoli en et le More than a university, Oral Roberts University in Tulsa, Oklahoma, was also the headquarters for evangelist Oral Roberts 's electronic church.
The electronic church in America, dominated by Christian evangelicals, used technology to spread the Gospel over radio airways and television signals to a dispersed audience. Yet evangelicals like Roberts also constructed ambitious campuses in real space and time. The architecture of Oral Roberts University visualized a modern and "populuxe" image for the electronic church in the s and s. The university's Prayer Tower purposely alluded to the Seattle Space Needle, aligning religion and the Space Age, and the campus's white, gold, and black color palette on late modern buildings created an image of aspirational luxury, conveying Roberts 's health and wealth gospel.
Oral Roberts University served as a sound stage for Roberts 's radio and television shows, a pilgrimage point for his audience, and a university dedicated to training evangelicals in the electronic church. Mortality disparities among groups participating in an East Africa surveying expedition: the Herbert Henry Austin expedition of In the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, a number of European expeditions traveled to the region of Lake Rudolf, now largely in northern Kenya. Although diverse in intent, many of these were undertaken in the interests of furthering colonial territorial claims.
Because of a confluence of adverse climatic, social, and political conditions, the expedition ran short of food supplies when it arrived at the northern end of the lake in April Major Austin himself suffered from severe scurvy with retinal hemorrhages which left him partially blind in his right eye.
An analysis of the mortality rates among the groups that participated in this expedition was undertaken. This revealed that poor nutritional status at the start of the trip was predictive of death from starvation. From 'circumstances' to 'environment': Herbert Spencer and the origins of the idea of organism-environment interaction.
The word 'environment' has a history. Before the mid-nineteenth century, the idea of a singular, abstract entity--the organism--interacting with another singular, abstract entity--the environment--was virtually unknown. In this paper I trace how the idea of a plurality of external conditions or circumstances was replaced by the idea of a singular environment.
The central figure behind this shift, at least in Anglo-American intellectual life, was the philosopher Herbert Spencer. I examine Spencer's work from to , demonstrating that he was exposed to a variety of discussions of the 'force of circumstances' in this period, and was decisively influenced by the ideas of Auguste Comte in the years preceding the publication of Principles of psychology It is this latter work that popularized the word 'environment' and the corresponding idea of organism--environment interaction--an idea with important metaphysical and methodological implications.
Spencer introduced into the English-speaking world one of our most enduring dichotomies: organism and environment. All rights reserved. Conferencias a la Memoria de la Dra. Lydia J. Roberts , Conferences in Memory of Dr. Roberts , This publication includes eleven lectures presented as part of a conference given honoring Dr. Seven of the papers are written in the English language and four in Spanish. Most of the papers relate to the topic of nutrition, but a few pay tribute to Dr.
Roberts in recognition of her distinguished leadership and teacher of human…. In her analysis of Night Sweats and Jerker, the author argues Chesley offers an alternative perspective that is both liberatory and sex-positive. Summary Robert Noyce and the invention of Silicon Valley. The Man behind the Microchip is Leslie Berlin's first book. This book tells the story of a giant of the high-tech industry: the multimillionaire Bob Noyce.
This co-founder of Fairchild Semiconductor and Intel co-invented the integrated circuit which became the electronic heart of every modern computer, automobile, advance. Full Text Available In this paper we analyze how Robert Nozicks minimal state proposed would invariably end, unless its members were coerced by the central government to contribute to its maintenance. And, in this case, rights and freedom protected under the philosophers state would obviously be violated.
Robert Hooke , in his own words. The diaries and other writings of Robert Hooke , as well as those of his contemporaries, are drawn upon to sketch his social and scientific life. An account is presented of his involvement with the Royal Society from its earliest days, and of his relations with notable scientists. In exploring the similarity between combustion and respiration, he established that air is composed of different gases, and that it is not motion of the lungs but a supply of fresh air that is necessary for life. Hooned projekteeris arhitekt Erwin Bernhard. Accuracy evaluation of pendulum gravity measurements of Robert von Sterneck.
Full Text Available The accuracy of first pendulum gravity measurements in the Czech territory was determined using both original surveying notebooks of Robert Daublebsky von Sterneck and modern technologies. Since more accurate methods are used for gravity measurements nowadays, our work is mostly important from the historical point of view.
Locations of the measurements were found with the help of original notebooks. Gravity in the site was interpolated using actual gravity models. Ela foi feita para explodir de fato. A fonte dessa moral secou e caiu no esquecimento. Heidegger assinala na Carta sobre o Humanismo :.
Assim comenta Loparic:. Coisa alguma requer, a rigor, ser feita presente, ser produzida. A completa falta de uma escatologia em Heidegger justifica esta leitura. A filosofia da finitude insiste, ou melhor, acena para abrir uma outra possibilidade de se situar no mundo, de morar juntos.
Heidegger despediu-se realmente do infinitismo e suas propostas morais, que se distancia do Ser na medida em que este busca fontes absolutas das suas certezas. Depois sempre sabemos mais do que antes. Isso, por sua vez, deixa o mundo artificial aparecer como uma nova segunda natureza. O homem deve ser? Entendendo o homem como um fim da natureza, surge curiosamente um fim que pode optar por fins.
Assim Jonas pode dizer que " Para onde nos deslocamos? Assim ele nos diz: "Em cada fim o Ser declara-se a favor de si mesmo e contra o Nada. O Ser quer ser. E a vida quer viver. Sentimos isso contemplando as finalidades existentes na natureza. Already in , Picabia's journal Cannibale heralded the great destruction praject of the dadaists. The poetics of anthropophagy, closely linked to Oswald de Andrade's personality and to the figurative art ofTarsila do Amaral, probes into the character of the NewWorld as opposed to the culture ofthe Old World.
Thus it is born, thraugh the encounter of cultures, echoing multivalent senses derived fram shock encounter, fram catechism and fram the assimilation ofthe other, in syncretic responses resultant of cultural heterogeneity. Andrade reinvented the collective unconscious of the country by gathering cut and pasted fragments oftravel stories.
His literary practice feeds on travel-Iogs which provide the raw material for the culinary ritual of spiritually devouring the other and harnessing its ancestral powers. Everything was executed in the way that cannibalism dictated, and this Andrade playfully called anthropophagy and culinary culture. This return is motivated by the encounter and confrontation ofdifferent cultural perspectives. As an educational technique, anthropophagy manipulates inter-cultural values inherent to the Brazilian historical proceSSj it transforms the act of devouring the discourse ofthe other into a means of expressing one's own.
To cannibalize the foundations of other cultures is for Andrade a ritual preparation: he appropriates in order to re-signity, passing onto the opposite paradigm that which is in the original source. The purpose of the project is to comment on different trans-positions effected throughout the course of the history of images.
At the sarne time it endeavors to freely perform trans-positions in the exhibition space itsel To trans-pose-to put something in a place different from where it was or should be, becomes thus a way to ultimately place the subject in the place ofthe other. At the base of all the Brazilian traveI accounts lies the legendary figure ofHans Staden, the German adventurer who initiated the tradition oftravelliterature in Brazil.
Hans Staden occupies the central place in the structure of mythical narratives: he is the traveling hera that breaks his ties with the tame world he knows and oscillates between the uncontrollable forces of the universe. Staden is taken prisoner and uses his skills to survive in the Indian village where he is kept. As can be observed in three accounts ofthe XVI century, the images ofthe Indians presented are mere transcriptions of text into image and manipulations of images, created fram transformations of a known repertoire.
This text is in the domain of the erudite accounts of the French Renaissance, which made use of models fram Classical Antiquity in arder to give a positive value to the inhabitants ofthe New World. The illustrated Grands voyages, Theodore de Bry's ambitious graphic praject published in Antwerp, marks the moment when visual arguments gain precedence ove r the text that originated them and become independent fram it.
Subsistence anthrapophagy ar cannibalism? Countless engravings depicted human flesh cooking on a fire, transmitting a culinary image ofthe culture ofthe Americas. The depiction of cannibalism in these images did not display the ritual aspect of cannibalism as a necessary practice for the survival of the tribe, and as a pracedure for strengthening a warrior community thraugh the acquisition of the enemy' s power. De Bry further dramatized the visual narra tive of cannibalism by highlighting the demoniac character of mutilation and other terrifYing details.
Value judgments are intraduced in the images as is implied by the victory ofthe ugly over the beautiful. As Bernadette Boucher has pointed out, the image ofthe old Indian woman with flaccid breasts takes the place of the shapely nude. Montaigne placed man, rather than the world, at the center ofhis reflections. He launched a "defense ofthe natural," inspired by utopian values of the French intellectuals who had been reached by the news of the New World. To Ronsard and La Boetie, for instance, France had become uninhabitable.
Montaigne sees nothing savage ar barbaric in what was said of the people ofAntarctic France. He also warns against the blindness ofthose that judge the practices ofthe inhabitants ofthe New. World as barbaric, without questioning their own practices. He praises the fact that the cannibals live sharing common property and that among them there are no rich ar poor people.
He admires the affection they demonstrate toward women and the boldness they exhibit in the battlefield. He acknowledges that cannibals did not eat their prisoner out of subsistence needs but as a vengeance, which is shown by the songs of defiance, sung on the occasion of a prisoner's sacrifice: "[ Savor them carefully, you will taste your own flesh. There is also an interest in identifying the possible meanings that were attached to the sacrifice, dismemberment, division, ingestion and digestion of the human body in the XVI century.
The decisive impact that images of cannibalism had on the European unconscious-and perhaps also on contemparaneity-usually enhanced its aggressive character, especially the transgression ofthe taboo on not eating human flesh. The image of cannibalism is, above all, disturbing. TraveI accounts echo the religious imagination, and the images ofhuman sacrifice are contaminated by references to the passion ofChrist.
It is important to add that, in the catholic ceremony, the moment ofrenovation ofthe faithful through Eucharist sacrament entails receiving the body and blood ofChrist through the symbolic practice ofCommunion. Eden was to be found in the Americas, home to the noble savage. On the other hand, this newly-discovered quarter of the earth corresponded to the infernal netherworlds, inferior to earth-inferus in Greek gave the root ofthe Latin inferno.
This world was inhabited by marine monsters and its abysses were populated by unusual creatures and tribes that fed on human flesh. The noble savage and the cannibal, the vision of paradise and the vision ofhell, were the most widely-propagated images of the inhabitants and of the New World throughout the XVI and XVII centuries. The image ofthe devil personified as a Brazilian native is a symbolical operation that is in accordance with the missionary project ofthe colonizers. The torturers appear as ambiguous human and animal hermaphrodite figures, whereas the tortured remain unaffected.
Through other examples of contamination and transference of meaning in this painting, it is possible to establish a parallel between hell and the cannibal practices of the Brazilian natives. Europeans chiefly constructed their images ofthe New World through the use of allegory, in its classical sense. The modern interpretation of allegary includes both allegorical speech as well as allegorical interpretation"7 ln arder to apprehend a new and unknown world, XVI and XVII century authors made use of verbal comparisons, placing two terms in a relationship of similarity or difference.
This shaping into visual figures had implications on the reception of the image. This symbolic correspondence was set in a genre of painting called the Allegory of the four continents and which depicted the world then known. Next to feminine figures that represented Europe, Asia and Africa, the cannibal Indian woman became the conventional personification of the Americas.
These feminine figures with certain physical attributes, garments and allusive objects, were literary motifs on which art compositions were based. At the end ofthe XVI century, the painter was in the sarne position as the poet or orator, who created images for the eyes of the readers. Cesare Ripa's lconoIogy, proposed something called creative and fictional allegory, where the image functioned in such a way that, by reading, one would see and, by seeing, one would read.
There is no room here to cite the descriptions he makes of Europe, personified by an extremely wealthy woman, of Asia, and her sensual attributes, and of the African Moorish woman, surrounded bya ferocious lion, snakes and vipers. But it is worthwhile to quote what he says about America Her hair is disheveled , and she wears around her body a kind of omament madefrom coIoifuIfeathers.
These beasts devour humans and other animaIs [.. What is particularly interesting for our discussion is the assimilation of this genre in the XVIII century by Brazilian artists. The set of four couples painted by Albert Eckhout is one of the most revealing works of the Dutch in Brazil, elaborated upon the new approach ofthe science ofnature which develops in contrast to religious belief and devoid of moral preoccupations. It is in this way the knowledge of nature reduced to the senses. Nonetheless, it cannot be denied that Eckhout's figures reveal themselves contaminated by allegorical notions popular at that time.
The four continents seemed to have come together in the colonies, under as seen by the eyes of the Dutch colonizers. From the Dutch perspective, there was a route that linked Africa to Brazil and to the West lndies. The establishment of trading posts along the West African coast which were necessary for European navigation, made Africa seem a logical complement to the American continent, in the eyes of the Dutch. This vision is evident in other compositions by Eckout. The expansion of Christianity built an enormous artistic apparatus which could guarantee its spiritual sovereignty.
This expansion mobilized artists and craftspeople that would serve the needs of the Church in the colonies. Some of them were familiar with the pre-Columbian traditions. For evangelization purposes, however, models brought from the European metropolis were used. Nevertheless, religious art in Spanish and Portuguese America is far from being a mere transplant ofEuropean models. There were serious gaps between the European mentality and life in the Americas, which deserve thus special consideration.
Our inquiry is concerned with the multiplicity of artistic expression on which the process of cultural miscegenation in the Americas is based. What is particularly interesting is the process of artistic hybridization where European and pre-Hispanic motifs were mixed, Christian allegory and the native mythologies intersected, the indigenous taste and desires coexisted in Christian images. Symbolic trans-positions and inversions occurred in the specific historical conditions ofSpanish and Portuguese America, through the incorporation process of religious culture. While religious education aimed at establishing the cult of Mary, the new converts mixed the Spanish religious traditions with the native legends.
According to Lafaye, the devotion to the Virgin ofGuadalupe, the image. Artists and craftspeople in the vice-rayalties of Peru and Mexico reevaluated artistic motifs, casting them in the forms and colors pravided by their local heritage. It also aimed at prapagating Christian ceremonies and practices among the population by representing them in christenings, weddings and Corpus Christi pracessions.
The Passion ofChrist is one ofthe themes particularly favored by Brazilian colonial artists. This motif was often exploited by baraque iconography. To this effect, a realistic, life-sized figure ofChrist and the Apostles was sculpted in cedar wood. The viewer is surprised by the importance given to the wounds on Christ's live flesh, which are reminiscent ofthe practice of slave whipping and flaying. Finally, it is important to point out the appearance of caste paintings in Mexico, which attempted to systematically display the diverse ethnic groups produced by racial mixing. This is the first instance when artists'looked at their own society in order to devise a taxonomy ofthe differences.
These paintings, executed in the XVII century, comprise a number of different pictorial traditions by artists with different forms of training and skill. They range from the art ofMiguel Cabrera to anonymous paintings oflesser skill. They affirm the phenomenon of miscegenation and they are a valuable as documents about a caste-based society in the process of disappearance.
This model of a society organized in categories follows the Enlightenment's classifying zeal. This family tree of society in New Spain had at its base the crossing ofSpaniards, Africans and Indians, and was presented in a family arrangementof couples and children, giving primacy to the practice of marriage.
The series of paintings are usually sixteen, which are the product of the three different human species: "A Spanish man and an Indian woman yield Mestizos. A Spaniard and a Mestizo woman produce Castizos. A Spaniard and a Castizo woman produce Spaniards again. From a Spaniard and a Negro, Mulattos are born. A Spaniard and a Mulatto woman yield Moorish.
From Moorish and Spaniard, Albino. From Albino and Spaniard, what is born 'Leaps-Back' [ This type of ethnic organization somehow approaches a physical anthropology of society in the Spanish and Portuguese Americas. However, certain social, politicaI and economic conditions were clearly invented, as seen in the description of clothing, social habits, trades and professions and the environment. It is obvious that the terminology proposed is not homogeneous and it often adopted categories and expressions from popular speech.
Although marred by lack of scientific rigor, these paintings have invaluable artistic importance. It is also unclear how the pia ce of each group in a society thus structured determined the rights and responsibilities of a caste society in the process of disappearance. Translatedfrom the Portuguese by Odile Cisneros. Benedito Nunes. Oswald canibal. La Rochelle: Antoine Chuppin, There are possible correspondences between the social practices through which cannibalism is effectuated and the cannibalized body itself.
His study refers to the social structure of the lndians and lends itself to the analysis of myths. The illustrations and the texts propose some hypothesis. Bernardette Boucher. La sauvage aux seins pendants, Paris, Herman, , PP. Michel de Montaigne. Jean-Michel Palmier. Paris: Herman, , PP Cesare Ripa, Iconologia, cited in Pietro Buscaroli ed. Germain Bazin, O Aleijadinho e a escultura barroca no Brasil trans. As visitas se renovavam. Theodore de Bry America tertia pars O programa compreendia um "embate americano ou isquiomaquia dos selvagens".
Staden O canto transcrito ou imaginado? Denn ihrwerdet mich mit Drauer Mich mit Hoffnung nimmer beugen. Dieses Fleisch, das ich euch reiche 1st, ihrToren, euer eignes Und in meinen innern Knochen Stickt das mark von euren Ahnherrn Kommt nur, kommt, mitjedem Bissen Kann sie euerGaumen schmecken.
Tratava-se de descrever um povo desconhecido. Matapu: caracol marinho [N. II, P. Maurice Godeliere Michel Panoff coord. O conhecimento do canibalismo na Oceania tem feito a pesquisa progredirconsideralielmente.
Michel de Certeau. Oswald de Andrade, op. It was no accident that Montaigne inscribed upon his own library the following quotation from Luctretius: "The human being has an excessive appetite for tales. First, an historiographical field as expressed in the search for sources which served as inspiration to the gentleman ofBordeaux, encompassing the essential texts on traveI which were republished and rediscovered with each generation.
The sentence also seems to correspond with certain tales of the expedition itself. We should, therefore, consider Montaigne within the context ofhis time. Villegagnon sailed into Rio de Janeiro harbor on the 10th ofNovember, , and installed his party on a small island which bears his name today. He was at the head of the only Protestant missionary group ofthe 16th century. While the Catholic kings put their soldiers and missionaries to sea, the Reformists concentrated their efforts in Europe. The missionary expansion at the time, which was directly linked to economic expansion, was an essentially Iberian affair, and the.
Furthermore, following the numeraus incidents and unexpected diversions, the squabbles which they had sought to escape re-emerged within their midst and mobilized them. What a film it would make! A handful ofFrenchmen, isolated on an unknown continent that may as well have been another planet, totally ignorant in the ways ofits nature and its people, incapable of cultivating the soil for their own subsistence, and entirely dependent upon an incomprehensible population who in any case had taken them for sworn enemies, assaulted by disease, this handful ofFrenchmen who had exposed themselves to all manner of danger in arder to escape the metrapolitan struggle and found a united bratherhood where all beliefs could coexist under a regime of tolerance and liberty [ Should water be mixed with wine for the Consecration?
Such was my man; moreover on various occasions he showed me several seamen and merchants whom he knew on that voyage. So I am content with what he told me, without inquiring what the cosmographes have to say about it. What we need is topographers who would make detailed accounts ofthe places which they had actually been to. But because they have the advantage of visiting Palestine, they want to enjoy the right of telling us tales about the rest of the world.
Thevet had travelled extensively in the Middle-East and published several pie ces before being named as the "Guardian of the King's curiosities. The program included an "American confrontation or savage fight.
Surrounded byanimals, trees, birds and fruits ofBrazil they sang, danced, ate, drank, wrestled, and conjured up the ways of a faraway land. There was even simulated combat. It is highly probable that Montaigne rediscovered the indigenous Brazilians at the "Brazilian party" in Bordeaux on the 9th ofApril , atwhich Charles IX was himself presento Such passion for the Brazilians was in fact quite the rage during this period. They appeared in Paris in following Claude d'Abbeville's voyages to northern Brazil. Tupinamba Amerindians became the increasingly popular subjects of engravings following an initial interest shown by Theadore de Bry, and the Chateau de Montbras in eastern France is hame ta a series of frescoes inspired by this very subject.
The ropes which he describes are the necldaces or matapus of shells, animaIs' teeth or dried nuts described notably by Hans Staden. The symbolic. As with many ofhis contemporaries also confronted by such lively new matter for theological debate, Montaigne was primarily concerned with one question alone. Did the Tupinamba have a religion? On the other hand, the effeminate and undistinguished members who have neglected to defend the honor oftheir heritage, are goingwith Aygan as the Devi!
This done, they roast him and make a common meal ofhim, sending chunks ofhis flesh to absent friends. This is not as some think done for foodas the Scythians used to do in antiquity-but to symbolize ultimate revenge. People who obey such a custom do so as a demonstration oftheir faith and love [ Finally, the most spectacular ofideas concerns the relativism ofjudgement, or the idea that the barbarity ofEuropeans should not yield to the barbarity of the Amerindians. I am French and it angers me to say it.
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During the bloody tragedy which began in Paris on the 24th ofAugust, , for which I do not accuse those who were not the cause, among other horrible acts to recount which were perpetuated throughout the kingdom, [ Montaigne's treatment ofthe imaginary is exemplified by the poetic and somewhat refined position of the prisoner doomed to an horrific fate : "I have a song made by one such prisoner which contains the following: 'Let them all dare to come and gather to feast on him, for with him they will feast on their own fathers and ancestors who have served as food and sustenance for his body.
These sinews, this flesh and these veins-poor fools that we are-are your very ownj you do not realize that they still contain the very substance ofthe limbs ofyour forebears : savor them well, for you will find that they taste of your very own. Vengeance through blood is well and truly fixed within its mighty and barbarous contexto ln order that the sacrifice be true to its intentions, it was required that the condemned man should have manifested his courage, fought bravely and prodaimed the feats ofhis ancestors and their victories over the very tribe that was going to devour him.
Furthermore, in boasting ofhis previous battles, the prisoner would describe having eaten the body of so-andso's father and the brother of such-and-such, thereby boasting the strength ofhis resolve. Denn ihr werdet mieh mit Drauer Mieh mit Hoffnung nimmer beugen.
Dieses Fleiseh, das ich eu eh reiche 1st, ihr Toren, euer eignes Und in meinen innern Knoehen Stiekt das mark von euren Ahnherrn Kommt nur, kommt, mit jedem Bissen Kann sie euer Gaumen sehmeeken. Lei do homem. It should be noted that the word "cannibal" as borrowed by Christopher Columbus himself from a Carib word did not have the sarne significance in the 16th century as it does today. It was used to describe an unknown tribe. The effect of a shift in meaning such that the word now refers to the practice of anthropophagy cannibalism is known to linguists as a synecdoche. Comparative and statistical analysis ofthese chapters in the "Exemplaire de Bordeaux" by Antoine Tournon, "Je n'ai jamais lu les Essais de Montaigne," Paris, Bulletin textuel, , nO.
Frank Lestringant, Le cannibale,. A World on the wane, translated by John Russell, Hutchinson, , p. Sceech, London, Penguin Books, , p. Maurice Godelier and Michel Panoff coord. Knowledge of cannibalism in Oceania has made research progress considerably. On the parallels between discoveries and the Religious Wars, refer to the work ofFrank Lestringant, Une sainte horreur ou le voya.
One may well be shocked by the logic behind such monetary terms during the century which saw the invention of modern accounting and the "Global Market. Michel de Certeau, "Le lieu de l'autre. For I shall not by your threats And your wishes submit myself. For I am not yet conquered! Come, share my remains, And in doing partake of Your ancestors, your fathers Who became but food for me!
This flesh which I offer you, Mad that you are, it is your own, And my inner bones hold The marrow of your forefathers. Come then, come, in every bite Your palette shall know it. The law of mano The law of the anthropophagite. Tratar-se-ia, enfim, de construir um lugar-ausentereinventando-o. Landscape and foundation: Frans Post and the invention of the American landscape On October 25, , the resonant accidents ofhistory led the painter Frans Post to the voyage that would take him to America, in the retinue of the Prince ofNassau.
That date, the exactitude ofthe event itself, propelled American "territorial consciousness" toward the future ofits own "invention of landscape. This detail did not go unnoticed: Post carne from a place that had directed his vision toward a certain type oflandscape construction. That is why his works, albeit being Brazilian, do not cease to be Dutch, and his landscapes, disquietingly strange for a contemporary European, formally compare with and resemble those of de Ruysdael, de Koninck or Van Goyen.
A certain "condensation" marks them and determines that they be simultaneously a new landscape, "first", and a known landscape, already seen, "second". Let us then say that Post created a kind of"utopia" with his painting: that impossible landscape that is always and neve r the first of alllandscapes. These paintings do not evoke any symptoms revealing that they are the first of their kind, heroic, or original. It is precisely their neutral surfaces of"pure," or indifferent and almost unnoticed landscapes, their harsh, schematic quality, their lack ofluxuriance, their almost discontinuous, "unadorned style," that renders them a special chapter of America landscape art.
The first landscape is deceptive; it's a "novelty" that we already knew, much like the first man to put his bulky foot on the lunar deserto It is also "unrecognizable" because it is formally insignificant. As it incarnates itself in the outlines of a pictorial writing, it is no longer first landscape.
Like the voice ofEcho, the nymph, whose reflections can never be a first word, 2 every landscape is already a second landscape, another landscape. This otherness oflandscape, like all otherness of representation, always occurs afterwards: an irreversible hierarchy of memory and experience delays it. Every landscape is inevitably "second," it always lies "after the landscape"; alllandscape is a meta-Iandscape. This is how a hypothesis would take form conferring a "foundational importance" on a certain "capricious" practice ofthe landscape-whose original model would aIs o be that part ofPost's work created on his return to Holland-an importance whose theoretical density becomes disguised in the fantasizing forest ofthe "condensations" of"natural fiction" and ofthe "memorable fantasy" of the landscape.
Frans Post undertook, then, between r and r, the enterprise of a foundationallandscape on Brazilian territory. He painted eighteen "primitivist," unadorned, schematic landscapes, considered the "first landscapes" ofAmerica in view of the remaining seven of them in the world.
But Post painted as a Dutch painter, with his eye sated in the Haarlem manner, looking "descriptively" only at the visible, divesting painting of any emblematic, aIlegorical, narrative or rhetorical attribute. That is to say, he painted as a Dutch man in Brazil, against a powerful and secular ltalianizing tradition. As a consequence, these first landscapes are no longer landscapes: theyare impregnated with the eye of a Dutch painter who combines in them the conventions of a school, with its "European" manner of painting, as weIl as the still nameless, and certainly unpopulated nature of the American continent.
FinaIly, to complete the adventure with an obverse experience, upon his return to HoIland Post did nothing but paint like a painter from another world. This would bestow upon him a kind ofindisputable "distinction"j theyare "capricious landscapes" composed in delay and at the wrong time, like a long and languid "recapitulation" of the landscapes that in his youth, by crossing the ocean, he had digested.
Every foundation operates according to a "double temporality. Thus Post, the founder of"American landscape," carne to Brazil-at an early stage ofthe foundation-in order to later become aware in Holland, throughout a durable and dilated pictorial production and at a second stage ofthe foundation, in each painting and in the sum of alI the paintings, of a landscape which he had already lost and for that reason needed to reconstitute. Then carne the "caprices," the "landscape fantasies" that made him known, up to our day, for a double fixation: a fixation for landscape3 and a tropical fixation.
One might hope that the real moment of"foundation" for American landscape is this second, detemporalized, retarded, "capricious," "whimsical" one ofthe fictional, imaginary, landscapes "composed" by Frans Post upon his return to HoIland. Since its foundation by Post, the American landscape was marked bya type of"otherness" turning it into a form and figure of "fiction", without impairing its fidelity to landscape. This was based on the condition to interpret the "double temporality" ofPost's workeighteen originallandscapes and dozens of"landscape caprices"-under the clarifYing light of a modern and celebrated foundation theory proposed by Sigmund Freud, in the beginning of this century, under a pretext of a certain Moses, father ofthe monotheist religion, as a "theoretical fiction" that announced the hypothetical universality ofthese unusual times that mark this foundation.
Such is the Freudian "novel" of Mosesj the father of the monotheistic religion must have been another, the one who carne from afar, an outsider, an Egyptian, a foreigner. Every foundation has two time frames, the time fra'me of an "Egyptian" that emigrates and dies in the desert, the time frame of the desertj and the time frame of a substitute that will take on the sarne name as the former and who, in another place and another time, will proceed to conclude his foundational acto Every foundation suffers, then, the regulation of a retrospective necessity by means ofwhich something, which establishes itself a religion or a landscape "changes aspect [ Like a kind of narcissistic reflection, the history of the foundation of the American landscape by the young Frans Post rigorously follows the steps ofthe Freudian fiction ofMoses: a foreigner arrives from far awayand brings, in his eyes, at the tip ofhis brushes, in the dangerously descriptive matter of his pigments, an unknown, formalizing modality, a way of seeing nature, of observing it in its proto-narrative serenity as ifit were the potential setting of all stories and thus the scene for no story notyet.
First foundational act: eighteen serene images, schematic, drawn at eye level, representing flat skies. Compared with the landscapes that Post later composed, this first-unobserved-moment ofFoundation destined as such to loss and substitution appears as ifmasterly characterized by dispossession. There are hardly any figures in them and the composition is schematic. As microaccounts of an unknown land as yet not embodied in the luxuriance oflegend, these first landscapes ofPost contrast with the last ones in which all the figures unite, all the plants grow, all the flowers glow, all the races ofAmerica dance or move, and the sarne space is shared by ruins, convents, shacks and even the biblical sacrifice ofManoah, with his archangellighting up the Brazilian sky.
However, inasmuch as they pertain to Post, the limits of a Freudian theory ofFoundation would be marked by the certainty that it is the sarne painter who, embodying himselfin two different "subjects," undertakes the unitary authorship ofthe foundation oflandscape in America. The first moment, unnoticed, looks forward-to the point of exhaustion-at a new country and registers the forms of that exhaustion in its landscapes: desolation or solitude, the disquieting serenity of a "fugitive" immensity. The second moment is one of"caprice," of a deformative fantasy that changes places and condenses all its figures into landscape.
The first moment is, to be exact, that of an "Arcadian" experience: nobody's land, a coarse land, crude landscapes; the. And every Paradise, as an apocryphal poem ofBorges states, is a lost Paradise. The landscapes Post created upon his return to Holland respond to the loss oflandscape in the distance of return: from there that landscape is simplyan "open space" in the memory.
Representation at a distance, at a double distance a spatial one oflandscape, a mimetic one ofits physical appearance has then the destiny to fulfill the aforementioned space in landscape art. This "imaginative" creation and fantasy, that inevitably breaks away from reality, this representation of landscape would proceed from its' American foundation by Post in the European distance of America, and in its double temporality as a desert faithful to the observed nature of a capricious luxuriance which refigures it as landscape, to the Freudian notion of deformation, o.
It would be a matter, ultimately, of constructing an absent place-reinventing it. The texture of this foundation-and the texture ofthe "capricious" invention ofthe place which itimplies-is precisely, distance. Daniel Arrasse, in an enlightening text about the spaces of perspective and the place of landscape, 6 has demonstrated that the precise operation oflandscape would have consisted in "bringing the distant near.
But the distance of. Therefore, one might think that the Post landscapes painted in Holland are a pictorial form of"grieving" produced by the displacement oftime, by the impossibility of making contemporary either the landscape that is represented or the vision which-in its deformation-invents it.
But, at the sarne time, this distance would become in Post-setting him apart from the other painters ofhis school-precisely the place where the "unexpected" and the "bizarre," which constitute American landscape as seen from Europe, would flourish. Repeating the abrupt voyage of discovery, and consuming the oceanic distance which divides Europe from America, Post allows the unknown land to surprise him with a raw perplexity which willlater allow him to invent novel pictorial approaches in his capricious landscapes. Thus, while he breaks away from reality, he constructs the "visuallegend" of the tropics.
From the European metropolis, using the weapons of memory to compensate for the extenuation of the gaze he capriciously approximates the American distance. He brings it doser; he also makes it a potentialland of narratives. An effort against distance and against oblivion, this landscape art "supplants" in its luxuriance the "unadorned," "deserted," "flat truth," ofhis first landscapes.
That which is nameless and only possesses figures-the landscape-can then be seen from afar as a desert or as caprice, as an empty place or as the reminiscent condensation of all its variations; as something that would eventually uphold only one denomination: "the aura of a natural thing; it could be defined as the only apparition of a distance, no matter how dose it might be. Resting in summer time, at noon, following in the horizon the line of a chain of mountains or a leaf that projects its shadow on the body of someone resting [ Translatedfrom the Spanish by Lyn Di Iorio.
Peter C. See Daniel Arrasse, "L'espace de la perspective et le lieu du paysage," unpublished manuscript. Traduzido do espanhol por Lilia Astiz. The search for a national identity is one of the great themes of Spanish-American culture that became evident in numerous cases even before independence was achieved successively by the European colonial empires.
This need to recognize one's own was experienced in a very conscious way during the sixteenth, seventeenth, and eighteenth centuries. This was a period during which a set of traits was taking shape that was already felt to be different, and that would later constitute the essence of the nationalist message against other ones. One of the most habitual resources that brought this identity into being was the construction of a discourse on recovering the pasto Fundamental to this was a reconstruction, to reconcile the interests of societies which had formed-like all societies, evidently-as a departure from a permanent form of syncretism, in which acculturation, assimilation and forced adaptation also played a parto For the countries with strongly structured indigenous cultures, the formula used was this population's incorporation into the officialdiscourse through the absorption ofthe values considered to be the most positive.
They were introduced into the organism of the new state with an agglutinative criterion, even as this process left hundreds of questions unanswered. Such would be the case with the Mexican state-and the Mexican past or with that ofthe Peruvian state and the Inca past, both of which ended up being devouring in a feast that had started centuries before.
The symbolic aspects of cannibalism are undoubtedly a part ofthis complex processo Thus, the reverential element of endo-cannibalism-the consumption ofthe parents and the members of the community-can manifest itself through the selective absorption of the past, by means of which the national culture ritualizes its relationship with its constituents.
On the other hand, exo-cannibalism, in its absorption ofthe enemies' values, because it does not exclude vengeance or the assumption of the enemies' power, can be detected in the multiple solutions which, according to the definitions we want to give them, can also be classified as syncretic, resistant, or assimilative. These do not however annul this symbolic reference. This is shown as one of the steps necessary for the construction of a homeland, even if for this, the most commonplace images fram daily life must be used and an ordered world constructed, according to the taste of the enlightened and absolute monarchies, and bolstered by the new interpretation that the sciences gave to the ordering of the different kingdoms of nature.
The presence ofthe indigenous chieftains in the Andean Corpus Christi pracessions, accompanied by the symbols of Inca power, judging by the observation of a series of paintings by artists from Cuzco on this theme, are also a paradigmatic example of Andean culture. They are logically understood as an integrated totality which inevitably includes manifestations of European culture as a new ingredient.
These figures, ar those depicted as patrans in numeraus paintings of the period, are transferring, in a notorious way, to their own community and to colonial society in general, their inclusion in the fabric of power which emerged after the Conquest. Thraugh this they have been gobbled up and fram this, in their turn, they have been fed in arder to perpetuate their function. Each of them is today a reality in which everything has entered to form part of the past itself; everything has been devoured and the organism has metabolized it all, transforming it into new energy.
Goya se mostra aqui um sagaz leitor de Freud. Mas que outro? Trata-se apenas de um dogma.