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From page 7 We can choose to prosecute if we keep the ban on polygamy and prevent a more serious threat from other groups such as Muslims and other cultures, where polygamy is just another name for a lifetime of slavery and abuse. We tolerate and protect the rights of homosexuals, we permit polyandry, and have become very liberal with our views on how others should live their lives, I am sure we have room in our society for a few hundred Mormon fundamentalists.
These people are our friends and neighbours. Along with the other pioneer families, they built this valley. I do not see that we are in a position to offer a better way of life and perhaps we can even learn something from them. Stephen Cox Creston. The more that you learn, the more places you'll go. Address: P. Box Canyon St. Creston Ph: Ext. Room Cr. CH Sat. Vespers-7 pm www. Service 5 pm, Sun. He is quiet but very friendly and loves to be petted.
Herc has been reported as healthy by his Vet so he Grooming Boarding has his bags packed waiting to go to NW Blvd Phillips Rd his furever home. How can anyone resist that expressive moustache!? Sportsnet Con. MotorWk Autoline Best of First Pla. Hagee J. N Insider Pets. News News Whatever Best of Balfour Osprey M. Balfour Osprey Osprey Osprey A few hundred onlookers of all ages stopped by to see the train on its cross-country journey.
For more photos, visit crestonvalleyadvance. Starting goalie Tyler Moffatt was pulled after the second goal and backup goalie Michael Hails. The Service starts at pm and culminates at midnight. Things turned around in the second period; by the end of it, a goal by Jesse Gartland and two more from Collins gave the Thunder Cats a lead.
The third period started off well with a Thunder Cats goal by Jovi Fabbri, following a third Rockies goal, but the Creston defence got lazy. On Friday, the Sicamous Eagles visited the. Meet the prophet Isaiah Interspersed with familiar Carols. Suitable for kids of ALL ages! Thunder Cats, who were looking for revenge following a Nov. A power play early in the third period allowed the Rockets to score their first goal, adding their second on a power play with left. Heaven chose to pull Hails, an attempt to even the score that paid off. The Golden Rockets are behind the Thunder Cats with 29 points, and the Rockies bring up the rear with five.
The team was coached by Colleen Douville and Allison Kepke. POA: Kelly Mehrer, POA: Piper, Monday Ladies Single: Virginia Harder, Triple: Marlene McGunigle, POA: Betty Armitage, POA: Larry Vandebogart, POA: Marilyn Karpowich, POA: Mike Roberts, POA: Oakley Ahlefeld, POA: Easton Ahelfeld, POA: Gregory Viers, POA: Emma Feltham, Androsoff, POA: Burrington, Men: John Putzi, Reg.
Chris Harold Standen, Dart Scores from Nov. Whist scores from Nov. We would like to express our sincere appreciation to all of our loyal customers and friends for your support during the wonderful years we have shared with you! AA pack. Allow weeks. The Prince Charles Secondary School senior girls volleyball team finished its season 15th in the province on Dec. The girls went into provincial play in Vancouver and found the expe Nice looking Sierra Harland was named to.
Mike Nelson coached the team.
The girls were coached by Karin Hawkins and Sue Thorne. Thanks for your support! Creston Phone: On Friday afternoon, the tournament started off with two games. The first game was the Bruins against Cranbrook Dodge. The first period was all Creston, with Alex Blackmore scoring two goals. Creston ended the second period with an unassisted goal from Levi Palmer. The third period was scoreless from Creston and seemed to be from Dodge, too, but with only three. Our mission The final score was for Cranbrook. The first period was all Creston with two goals, the first scored only two minutes into the period by Justice Samuels Mund and assisted by newcomer Chloe Luke.
Then, with left in the period, Denek Blackmore got the puck in the net with an unassisted goal. The third period brought about several penalties and two goals. The first goal of the period was scored by Serge Chatwin and assisted by Denek and Alex. Kimberley responded only 14 seconds later with their lone goal by Colton Fox. The Bruins won With a quick rest, Kimberley was back on the ice to play Cranbrook Dodge, with Dodge wining The fifth game of the tournament was Cranbrook Western Roofing against the home team.
The second period was all Creston, with Mund leading the pack of scorers. Creston dominated the third period. The first to score was an unassisted goal by Chloe. Caytlyn Luke soon followed with her goal sent to her by Chloe and Tyson Steed. The ninth goal was scored by Justice Samuels Mund, his second of the game.
With left in the game, Western Roofing snuck a goal in. Creston ended the period with a goal set up by Denek and Chatwin for Chloe to score. Creston won the game Cranbrook Western Roofing had a quick refuel and recharge, and it was back out onto the ice to play Cranbrook Dodge. A real back-and-forth game between the two Cranbrook teams brought forth an tie, with Jacob Sebben of Cranbrook Dodge scoring a hat trick. Cranbrook Dodge won The second game Sunday morning started the playoff rounds, with the Bruins against the Nitros.
With a final score of , Creston advanced to the final. Playing for third and fourth place in the tournament were Western Roofing and the Nitros.
Western Roofing started the second period off with a goal, but Kimberley responded with two more to tie it up. Kimberley would then score two more goals with Western Roofing coming back with only one more scored by Tyler Epp with 41 seconds remaining in the second period. With a score of , Kimberley placed third. The final game of the CVMHA peewee tournament was played Sunday afternoon and saw the home team play against Cranbrook Dodge, which was the first to score with an unassisted goal by Dalton Luce.
Creston then responded with an unassisted goal by Alex, for a tie by the end of the period. The second period was a nail-biter, a real back-and-forth game with both goalies seeing a lot of rubber. Dodge scored three quick goals for a substantial lead. First place went to Cranbrook Dodge. After each game, a Heart and Hustle Award was presented to an outstanding player on each team as voted by the coaches. Kimberley Nitros: Blair Shuflita, Jack.
With plenty of fans on the big ice, the Bruins put on a good show to take a hard-fought win over Cranbrook Players Bench. Goalies and Scott Doeleman and Christopher Mulder played an awesome game. Creston opened the scoring and goals were swapped, with Creston maintaining a one- or two-goal lead. Jayden Gigliotti was playing and passing well. Abdul Samai took a shot at the empty net but missed by only feet. The icing brought the puck back to Crestons zone but some great defence kept the puck out of the net, and a win for Creston.
Earlier in the day, the Bruins travelled to Sparwood to play Elk Valley. Kristi Blackmore played some awesome defence by holding her own, and Brendan Christianson was having a great game but was taken into the boards with a hit to the head that ended his weekend hockey. Creston finished the game and the next with three defence, and the team hopes for a speedy recovery for Brendan. Elk valley scored next and was riddled with penalties, leading to a player and the coach being ejected from the game. The previous weekend, the team played the Nelson Leafs. The players played exceptionally well, with some solid defense.
They passed the puck well and talked to each other to get an win. Winter Leisure Guide is now out in the mail! You can view it online at www. Give the gift of health! Gift Certificates are available! Register now! Fitness Studio drop in classes are running throughout the holidays, so stop by and try it out. All fitness levels welcome!
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In , he married the love of his life, Elsie Dreger. He worked in the oil patch in Alberta until he returned to farming in Ernest was an active member in the Peace Lutheran Church Council and he was one of the founding shareholders of Weyburn Inland Terminal. Ernest and Elsie retired to Creston in and here he had various interests one being restoring tractors. Ernest was predeceased by his parents Fred and Lydia Richter.
Shiv Kapoor was born in Delhi, India. He was well-known in the Creston community for his decades of service as a teacher, friend and neighbour. He contributed to many charitable causes both near and far. When he wasn't enjoying his bridge club, he was furthering his mastery of chess. He loved Creston and honoured Canada while maintaining strong ties to his motherland of India. He remains the mental and moral compass for his entire family.
Shiv took great pleasure in feeding people. In your own way, share a meal in his memory. A family graveside service will be in Creston, BC at a later date. Condolences may be sent to the family through providencefuneralhomes. Providence Funeral Homes Parkview Chapel We would like to express our sincere thanks to everyone for the overwhelming outpouring of compassion, generosity and love after the sudden and unexpected passing of Jim.
Thank you so much for all the wonderful flowers, food, cards, help and support. Jim was such a well-known, respected and loved member of the Creston Valley for almost his entire life. We know he is greatly missed, not only by us, his family, but by his many, many friends.
He will be in our hearts forever. Jamie, Robbi and Vicki McDonald. The couple immigrated to Red Deer, AB in , where he was employed as an electrician. Royal Canadian Legion Veteran Tribute. Kidney disease strikes families, not only individuals. At the Rotacrest Hall Cremation Shiv took great pleasure in feeding people. To see if you qualify, phone toll free now. Free service! Wishing you a happy Christmas Season! NO Risk Program. Free Consultation. Call Us Now. We Can Help! Of the isolates, 61 Band sizes were bp for FC27 and bp for 3D7.
Mean multiplicity of infection MOI was 1. Heterozygosity H E ranged from 0. Cytokine response was higher among 0. A polyvalent hybrid protein elicits antibodies against the diverse allelic types of block 2 in Plasmodium falciparum merozoite surface protein 1. Merozoite surface protein 1 MSP1 of Plasmodium falciparum has been implicated as an important target of acquired immunity, and candidate components for a vaccine include polymorphic epitopes in the N-terminal polymorphic block 2 region.
We designed a polyvalent hybrid recombinant protein incorporating sequences of the three major allelic types of block 2 together with a composite repeat sequence of one of the types and N-terminal flanking T cell epitopes, and compared this with a series of recombinant proteins containing modular sub-components and similarly expressed in Escherichia coli. Immunogenicity of the full polyvalent hybrid protein was tested in both mice and rabbits, and comparative immunogenicity studies of the sub-component modules were performed in mice.
The full hybrid protein induced high titre antibodies against each of the major block 2 allelic types expressed as separate recombinant proteins and against a wide range of allelic types naturally expressed by a panel of diverse P. This encourages further development and evaluation of the full MSP1 block 2 polyvalent hybrid protein as a candidate blood-stage component of a malaria vaccine. Human T-cell recognition of synthetic peptides representing conserved and variant sequences from the merozoite surface protein 2 of Plasmodium falciparum.
Merozoite surface protein 2 MSP2 is a malaria vaccine candidate currently undergoing clinical trials. The findings are encouraging for the development of a vaccine based on these T-epitope containing regions of MSP2, as the peptides were broadly recognized suggesting that they can bind to diverse HLA alleles and also because they include conserved MSP2 sequences.
Immunisation with a vaccine construct Genetic diversity of Plasmodium falciparum merozoite surface protein -1 block 2 in sites of contrasting altitudes and malaria endemicities in the Mount Cameroon region. A total of randomly selected P. K-1 polymerase chain reaction products were also sequenced. As opposed to high altitude, the highest malaria prevalence Seven A new K-1 polymorphism was identified.
Reliable and inexpensive expression of large, tagged, exogenous proteins in murine bone marrow-derived macrophages using a second generation lentiviral system. Full Text Available Over the past two decades, researchers have struggled to efficiently express foreign DNA in primary macrophages, impeding research progress. The applications of lipofection, electroporation, microinjection, and viral-mediated transfer typically result in disruptions in macrophage differentiation and function, low expression levels of exogenous proteins , limited efficiency and high cell mortality.
In this report, after extensive optimization, we present a method of expressing large tagged proteins at high efficiency, consistency, and low cost using lentiviral infection. This method utilizes laboratory-propagated second generation plasmids to produce efficient virus that can be stored for later use. This manuscript delineates the reagents and methods used to produce lentivirus to express exogenous DNA in murine bone marrow-derived macrophages sufficient for single cell microscopy as well as functional assays requiring large numbers of murine bone marrow-derived macrophages.
Northeast NE India is one of the high endemic regions for malaria with a preponderance of Plasmodium falciparum, resulting in high morbidity and mortality. The P. However, there is a paucity of information related to merozoite surface protein 1 msp-1 and glutamate-rich protein glurp which have been extensively studied in various parts of the world. The present study was, therefore, aimed at investigating the genetic diversity of P.
Two hundred and forty nine patients with fever were screened for malaria, of whom 75 were positive for P. Blood samples were collected from each microscopically confirmed patient. The DNA was extracted; nested polymerase chain reaction and sequencing were performed to study the genetic diversity of msp-1 block 2 and glurp. However, an extensive diversity 9 alleles and 4 genotypes and repeat regions exclusively of R2 type were observed in glurp.
Web Tools: The Second Generation. Web 2. Many Web 2. The second-generation tools are growing in popularity…. In addition to the major carbohydrate moieties of the glycosylphosphatidylinositol GPI anchor, we report that Plasmodium falciparum merozoite surface protein 1 MSP-1 bears O-GlcNAc modifications predominantly in beta-anomeric configuration, in both the C- and N-terminal portions of the protein Recombinant polymorphic membrane protein D in combination with a novel, second-generation lipid adjuvant protects against intra-vaginal Chlamydia trachomatis infection in mice.
The development of a chlamydial vaccine that elicits protective mucosal immunity is of paramount importance in combatting the global spread of sexually transmitted Chlamydia trachomatis Ct infections. While the identification and prioritization of chlamydial antigens is a crucial prerequisite for efficacious vaccine design, it is likely that novel adjuvant development and selection will also play a pivotal role in the translational potential of preclinical Ct vaccines. Although the molecular nature of the immuno-modulatory component is of primary importance, adjuvant formulation and delivery systems may also govern vaccine efficacy and potency.
Our study provides the first preclinical evaluation of recombinant Ct polymorphic membrane protein D rPmpD in combination with three different formulations of a novel second-generation lipid adjuvant SLA. We demonstrate robust protection against intra-vaginal Ct challenge in mice, evidenced by significantly enhanced resistance to infection and reduction in mean bacterial load. Strikingly, protection was found to correlate with the presence of robust anti-rPmpD serum and cervico-vaginal IgG titres, even in the absence of adjuvant-induced Th1-type cellular immune responses elicited by each SLA formulation, and we further show that anti-rPmpD antibodies recognize Ct EBs.
These findings highlight the utility of SLA and rational molecular design of adjuvants in preclinical Ct vaccine development, but also suggest an important role for anti-rPmpD antibodies in protection against urogenital Ct infection. Published by Elsevier Ltd. Extensive diversity in the allelic frequency of Plasmodium falciparum merozoite surface proteins and glutamate-rich protein in rural and urban settings of southwestern Nigeria. Nigeria carries a high burden of malaria which makes continuous surveillance for current information on genetic diversity imperative. In this study, the merozoite surface proteins msp-1, msp-2 and glutamate-rich protein glurp of Plasmodium falciparum collected from two communities representing rural and urban settings in Ibadan, southwestern Nigeria were analysed.
Capillary blood was obtained for malaria rapid diagnostic test, thick blood smears for parasite count and blood spots on filter paper for molecular analysis. Three-hundred and nine samples were successfully genotyped for msp-1, msp-2 and glurp genes. The allelic distribution of the three genes was not significantly different in the rural and urban communities. R and 3D7 were the most prevalent alleles in both rural and urban communities for msp-1 and msp-2, respectively.
Overall, Msp-1 and msp-2 genes displayed higher levels of diversity and higher MOI rates than the glurp gene. Significant genetic diversity was observed between rural and urban parasite populations in Ibadan, southwestern Nigeria. The results of this study show that malaria transmission intensity in these regions is still high. No significant difference was observed between rural and urban settings, except for a completely different msp-1 allele, compared to previous reports, thereby confirming the changing face of malaria transmission in these communities.
This study provides. Genetic diversity in the C-terminus of merozoite surface protein 1 among Plasmodium knowlesi isolates from Selangor and Sabah Borneo, Malaysia. Plasmodium knowlesi, a malaria parasite of macaques, has emerged as an important parasite of humans. Despite the significance of P. Our aim here was to explore sequence variation in a molecule called the 42kDa merozoite surface protein -1 MSP-1 , which is found on the surface of blood stages of Plasmodium spp. Several studies of P. However, to date, no study has yet investigated the sequence diversity of the gene encoding P.
The present study explored this aspect. Twelve P. The Pk-msp-1 42 gene was amplified by PCR and directly sequenced. There was relatively high genetic variation among P. A total of nine different haplotypes related to amino acid alterations at 13 positions, and the Pk-MSP-1 19 sequence was found to be more conserved than Pk-msp-1 We have found evidence for negative selection in Pk-msp- 42 as well as the 33kDa and 19kDa fragments by comparing the rate of non-synonymous versus synonymous substitutions.
Future investigations should study large numbers of samples from disparate geographical locations to critically assess whether this molecule might be a potential vaccine target for P. The evolution and diversity of a low complexity vaccine candidate, merozoite surface protein 9 MSP-9 , in Plasmodium vivax and closely related species. The merozoite surface protein -9 MSP-9 has been considered a target for an anti-malarial vaccine since it is one of many proteins involved in the erythrocyte invasion, a critical step in the parasite life cycle.
Orthologs encoding this antigen have been found in all known species of Plasmodium parasitic to primates. In order to characterize and investigate the extent and maintenance of MSP-9 genetic diversity, we analyzed DNA sequences of the following malaria parasite species: Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium reichenowi, Plasmodium chabaudi, Plasmodium yoelii, Plasmodium berghei, Plasmodium coatneyi, Plasmodium gonderi, Plasmodium knowlesi, Plasmodium inui, Plasmodium simiovale, Plasmodium fieldi, Plasmodium cynomolgi and Plasmodium vivax and evaluated the signature of natural selection in all MSP-9 orthologs.
Our findings suggest that the gene encoding MSP-9 is under purifying selection in P. We further explored how selection affected different regions of MSP-9 by comparing the polymorphisms in P. This observation implies that the MSP-9 orthologs in human parasites may interact differently with the host immune response. Thus, studies carried out in one species cannot be directly translated into the other. Characterization of Plasmodium falciparum diversity is commonly achieved by amplification of the polymorphic regions of the merozoite surface proteins 1 MSP1 and 2 MSP2 genes. Sixty two percent of isolates had multiple genotypes and the overall mean multiplicity of infection was 1.
Genetic diversity in P. Genetic diversity of Plasmodium falciparum isolates from naturally infected children in north-central Nigeria using the merozoite surface protein -2 as molecular marker. To characterize the genetic diversity of Plasmodium falciparum P. Three hundred and twenty children were enrolled into the study between and These included children who presented with uncomplicated malaria at the Dalhatu Araf Specialist Hospital, Lafia and another children from the study area with asymptomatic infection.
DNA was extracted from blood spot on filter paper and MSP-2 genes were genotyped using allele-specific nested PCR in order to analyze the genetic diversity of parasite isolates. A total of 31 and 34 distinct MSP-2 alleles were identified in the asymptomatic and uncomplicated malaria groups respectively. However, isolates of the FC27 allele type were dominant in the asymptomatic group whereas isolates of the 3D7 allele type were dominant in the uncomplicated malaria group. This study showed a high genetic diversity of P. Published by Elsevier B.
Plasmodium vivax merozoite surface protein -1 PvMSP1 gene codes for a major malaria vaccine candidate antigen.
And that means that employment on the gold mines could be zero by I never got a chance to respond, since Payne kept talking to run out the clock. As the transmission rate of malaria is low in Nepal, the diversity is most likely due to migration of people between the malaria endemic regions, either within Leadership will then pass to a " second generation ," laypeople who have not worked alongside religious. The simulated process
However, its polymorphic nature represents an obstacle to the design of a protective vaccine. Totally, 41 haplotypes were identified and 30 of them were new haplotypes. The differences between the rates of non-synonymous and synonymous mutations suggest that PvMSP has evolved under natural selection, and a high selective pressure preferentially acted on regions identified of PvMSP Such results have significant implications for understanding the dynamic of the P.
Second-generation HTS conductors. The discovery of high temperature superconductors HTS in by two IBM scientists led to an unprecedented explosion of research and development efforts world-wide because of the significant potential for practical applications offered by these materials. However, the early euphoria created by the exciting prospects was dampened by the daunting task of fabricating these materials into useful forms with acceptable superconducting properties.
This story is a clay illustrated children's story where Glen the Glurp meets a very timid turkey named Thomas. Glen invites him to his harvest party. Thomas goes. dynipalo.tk - Buy Glen the Glurp and the Autumn Harvest Party: Volume 6 book online at best prices in India on dynipalo.tk Read Glen the Glurp and the Autumn .
Progress towards this goal has been hindered by many intrinsic materials problems, such as weak-links, flux-creep, and poor mechanical properties. Three methods were invented to produce flexible metallic substrates, which were also crystallographically biaxially textured, and resembled a long, mosaic single crystal. The third method invented is calle Low level of sequence diversity at merozoite surface protein -1 locus of Plasmodium ovale curtisi and P. The merozoite surface protein -1 MSP-1 is a candidate target for the development of blood stage vaccines against malaria.
Polymorphism in MSP-1 can be useful as a genetic marker for strain differentiation in malarial parasites. Although sequence diversity in the MSP-1 locus has been extensively analyzed in field isolates of Plasmodium falciparum and P. Analysis of the mitochondrial cytochrome b sequences of 10 P. Most amino acid differences between these proteins were located in the interspecies variable domains of malarial MSP Phylogenetic analysis based on conserved domains has placed PocMSP-1 and PowMSP-1 in a distinct bifurcating branch that probably diverged from each other around 4.
The MSP-1 sequences support that P. Both species are sympatric in Thailand. The low level of sequence diversity in PocMSP-1 and PowMSP-1 among Thai isolates could stem from persistent low prevalence of these species, limiting the chance of outcrossing at this locus. Release of hepatic Plasmodium yoelii merozoites into the pulmonary microvasculature. Full Text Available Plasmodium undergoes one round of multiplication in the liver prior to invading erythrocytes and initiating the symptomatic blood phase of the malaria infection.
Productive hepatocyte infection by sporozoites leads to the generation of thousands of merozoites capable of erythrocyte invasion. Merozoites are released from infected hepatocytes as merosomes, packets of hundreds of parasites surrounded by host cell membrane. Intravital microscopy of green fluorescent protein -expressing P.
Merosomes survived the subsequent passage through the right heart undamaged and accumulated in the lungs. Merosomes were absent from blood harvested from the left ventricle and from tail vein blood, indicating that the lungs effectively cleared the blood from all large parasite aggregates. Accordingly, merosomes were not detectable in major organs such as brain, kidney, and spleen. The failure of annexin V to label merosomes collected from hepatic effluent indicates that phosphatidylserine is not exposed on the surface of the merosome membrane suggesting the infected hepatocyte did not undergo apoptosis prior to merosome release.
Merosomal merozoites continued to express green fluorescent protein and did not incorporate propidium iodide or YO-PRO-1 indicating parasite viability and an intact merosome membrane. Evidence of merosomal merozoite infectivity was provided by hepatic effluent containing merosomes being significantly more infective than blood with an identical low-level parasitemia. Ex vivo analysis showed that merosomes eventually disintegrate inside pulmonary capillaries, thus liberating merozoites into the bloodstream.
We conclude that merosome packaging protects hepatic merozoites from phagocytic attack by sinusoidal Kupffer cells, and that release into the lung microvasculature enhances the. AFCo1, a meningococcal B-derived cochleate adjuvant, strongly enhances antibody and T-cell immunity against Plasmodium falciparum merozoite surface protein 4 and 5.
Whilst a large number of malaria antigens are being tested as candidate malaria vaccines, a major barrier to the development of an effective vaccine is the lack of a suitable human adjuvant capable of inducing a strong and long lasting immune response. Given the proven safety of MBOMP, which is already in use in a licensed human vaccine, AFCo1 could assist the development of human malaria vaccines that require a potent and safe adjuvant.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Whilst a large number of malaria antigens are being tested as candidate malaria vaccines, a major barrier to the development of an effective vaccine is the lack of a suitable human adjuvant capable of inducing a strong and long lasting immune response. Conclusion Given the proven safety of MBOMP, which is already in use in a licensed human vaccine, AFCo1 could assist the development of human malaria vaccines that require a potent and safe adjuvant.
A novel Pfs38 protein complex on the surface of Plasmodium falciparum blood-stage merozoites. These proteins have been well characterized at transmission as well as hepatic stages of the parasite life cycle. In the present s Lineage-specific positive selection at the merozoite surface protein 1 msp1 locus of Plasmodium vivax and related simian malaria parasites. Full Text Available Abstract Background The kDa merozoite surface protein 1 MSP-1 of malaria parasites, a strong vaccine candidate, plays a key role during erythrocyte invasion and is a target of host protective immune response.
Plasmodium vivax, the most widespread human malaria parasite, is closely related to parasites that infect Asian Old World monkeys, and has been considered to have become a parasite of man by host switch from a macaque malaria parasite. Several Asian monkey parasites have a range of natural hosts.
The same parasite species shows different disease manifestations among host species. This suggests that host immune responses to P. It is thus tempting to invoke that a major immune target parasite protein such as MSP-1 underwent unique evolution, depending on parasite species that exhibit difference in host range and host specificity. Results We performed comparative phylogenetic and population genetic analyses of the gene encoding MSP-1 msp1 from P.
The inferred phylogenetic tree of msp1 significantly differed from that of the mitochondrial genome, with a striking displacement of P. Importantly, positive selection was inferred for two ancestral branches, one leading to P. This ancestral positive selection was estimated to have occurred three to six million years ago, coinciding with the period of radiation of Asian macaques. Comparisons of msp1 polymorphisms between P. Full Text Available Clinical immunity to malaria declines in the absence of repeated parasite exposure.
However, little is known about how B cell populations and antigen-specific memory B cells change in the absence of P. A successful indoor residual insecticide spraying campaign in a highland area of western Kenya, led to an absence of blood-stage P. We assessed memory B cell responses in 45 adults at the beginning April and end April of a subsequent month period during which none of the adults had evidence of asymptomatic parasitemia or clinical disease.
B cell populations were characterized by flow cytometry. In an effort to identify such markers, and thereby provide a clue to the complex equation malaria vaccine development is facing, we investigated the relationship between protection acquired through exposure in the field with naturally occurring immune responses i. The status of susceptibility or resistance to malaria was determined by active case detection performed daily by medical doctors over 6 y from a unique follow-up study of this village.
Of the 30 immune responses measured, only one, antibodies of the IgG3 isotype directed to merozoite surface protein 3 MSP3, was strongly associated with clinical protection against malaria in all age groups, i. This immunological parameter had a higher statistical significance than the sickle cell trait, the strongest factor of protection known against Plasmodium falciparum. A single determination of antibody was significantly associated with the clinical outcome over six consecutive years in children submitted to massive natural parasite challenges by mosquitoes over three parasite inoculations per week.
Finally, the target epitopes of these antibodies were found to be fully conserved. Tumour necrosis factor and interleukin-6 production induced by components associated with merozoite proteins of Plasmodium falciparum. However, stimulation of TNF was absent, and that of IL-6 was reduced, when the antigens were purified from detergent extracts Instead, other components associating with these exoantigens may be responsible for the TNF production. Mouse antisera blocking TNF production stimulated by P.
The second generation biofuels from the biomass. The author takes stock on the second generation biofuels in the world, the recent technologies, their advantages, the research programs and the economical and environmental impacts of the biofuels development. Second generation biofuels: Economics and policies. The study indicates that while second generation biofuels could significantly contribute to the future energy supply mix, cost is a major barrier to its commercial production in the near to medium term. Depending upon type of biofuels, feedstock prices and conversion costs, the cost of cellulosic ethanol is found to be two to three times higher than the current price of gasoline on an energy equivalent basis.
The median cost across the studies reviewed of biodiesel produced from microalgae, a prospective feedstock, is seven times higher than the current price of diesel, although much higher cost estimates have been reported. While significant cost reductions are needed for both types of second generation biofuels, the critical barriers are at different steps of the production process. For cellulosic ethanol, the biomass conversion costs needs to be reduced. On the other hand, feedstock cost is the main issue for biodiesel.
At present, policy instruments, such as fiscal incentives and consumption mandates have in general not differentiated between the first and second generation biofuels except in the cases of the US and EU. The policy regime should be revised to account for the relative merits of different types of biofuels. Carriquiry, Miguel A. The objectives of this activity are: to review the current YMP baseline environment and establish corrosion test environments representative of the range of dry to intermittently wet conditions expected in the drifts as a function of time; to demonstrate the oxidation and corrosion resistance of A weathering steel and reference Alloy 22 samples in the representative dry to intermittently dry conditions; and to evaluate backfill and design features to improve the thermal performance analyses of the proposed second-generation waste packages using existing models developed at the University of Nevada, Reno UNR.
The work plan for this project activity consists of three major tasks: Task 1. Definition of expected worst-case environments humidity, liquid composition and temperature at waste package outer surfaces as a function of time, and comparison with environments defined in the YMP baseline; Task 2.
Oxidation and corrosion tests of proposed second-generation outer container material; and Task 3. Second Generation waste package thermal analyses. Full funding was not provided for this project activity. Identification of two Th1 cell epitopes on the Babesia bovis-encoded kilodalton merozoite protein Bb-1 by use of truncated recombinant fusion proteins. Previous studies have demonstrated the serologic and T-cell immunogenicity for cattle of a recombinant form of the apical complex-associated kDa merozite protein of Babesia bovis, designated Bb The present study characterizes the immunogenic epitopes of the Bb-1 protein.
A series of recombinant truncated fusion proteins spanning the majority of the Bb-1 protein were expressed in Escherichia coli, and their reactivities with bovine peripheral blood mononuclear cells and T-cell clones derived from B. Lymphocytes from two immune cattle were preferentially stimulated by the N-terminal half of the Bb-1 protein amino acids 23 to , termed Bb-1A , localizing the T-cell epitopes to the Bb-1A portion of the molecule. In contrast, rabbit antiserum raised against the intact fusion protein reacted only with the C-terminal half of the protein amino acids to , termed Bb-1B , which contained 28 tandem repeats of the tetrapeptide PAEK or PAET.
The studies described here report for the first time the characterization, by cytokine production, of the Th1 subset of bovine T cells and show that, as in mice, protozoal antigens can induce Th1 cells in ruminants. This first demonstration of B. The Suitability of P. Al-abd, Nazeh M. Background The accuracy of the conclusions from in vivo efficacy anti-malarial drug trials depends on distinguishing between recrudescences and re-infections which is accomplished by genotyping genes coding P.
Methods Blood samples were collected from patients with fever and screened for malaria parasites using Giemsa-stained blood films. A total 74 samples were infected with P. JAN l8 Al-M Molecular identification of a malaria merozoite surface sheddase. Full Text Available Proteolytic shedding of surface proteins during invasion by apicomplexan parasites is a widespread phenomenon, thought to represent a mechanism by which the parasites disengage adhesin-receptor complexes in order to gain entry into their host cell.
Erythrocyte invasion by merozoites of the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum requires the shedding of ectodomain components of two essential surface proteins , called MSP1 and AMA1. Both are released by the same merozoite surface "sheddase," but the molecular identity and mode of action of this protease is unknown. Here we identify it as PfSUB2, an integral membrane subtilisin-like protease subtilase. We show that PfSUB2 is stored in apical secretory organelles called micronemes. Upon merozoite release it is secreted onto the parasite surface and translocates to its posterior pole in an actin-dependent manner, a trafficking pattern predicted of the sheddase.
PfSUB2 is a new potential target for drugs designed to prevent erythrocyte invasion by the malaria parasite. Diversity and population structure of Plasmodium falciparum in Thailand based on the spatial and temporal haplotype patterns of the C-terminal kDa domain of merozoite surface protein The kDa C-terminal region of the merozoite surface protein -1 of the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum PfMSP constitutes the major component on the surface of merozoites and is considered as one of the leading candidates for asexual blood stage vaccines. Because the protein exhibits a level of sequence variation that may compromise the effectiveness of a vaccine, the global sequence diversity of PfMSP has been subjected to extensive research, especially in malaria endemic areas.
In Thailand, PfMSP sequences have been derived from a single parasite population in Tak province, located along the Thailand-Myanmar border, since However, the extent of sequence variation and the spatiotemporal patterns of the MSP haplotypes along the Thai borders with Laos and Cambodia are unknown. Sixty-three isolates of P. The msp-1 gene block 17 was sequenced and analysed for the allelic diversity, frequency and distribution patterns of PfMSP haplotypes in individual populations.
The PfMSP haplotype patterns were then compared between parasite populations to infer the population structure and genetic differentiation of the malaria parasite. Five conserved polymorphic positions, which accounted for five distinct haplotypes, of PfMSP were identified.
Differences in the prevalence of PfMSP haplotypes were detected in different geographical regions, with the highest levels of genetic diversity being found in the Kanchanaburi and Ranong provinces along the Thailand-Myanmar border and Trat province located at the Thailand-Cambodia border. Despite this variability, the distribution patterns of individual PfMSP haplotypes seemed to be very similar across the country and over the three malarial transmission seasons, suggesting that gene flow.
A " second generation " of ministry leadership. Catholic health care leaders differ from others in the field in that "they are expected to serve as Jesus served, teach as Jesus taught, and lead as Jesus led, in order to heal as Jesus healed. This first generation was privileged in that it was tutored by and worked alongside women and men religious.
Those religious are now mostly gone from the ministry, and that first generation of lay leaders will also be retiring in the not too distant future. Leadership will then pass to a " second generation ," laypeople who have not worked alongside religious. How is this new generation to learn "to heal as Jesus healed"? In its efforts to fill a position, the system first assembles a preferred-candidate profile, based on 15 competencies, including seven core competencies.
CHE then employs a recruitment process based on behavioral event interviewing. All involved stakeholders participate in the interviews. Progress towards the development of a malaria vaccine against Plasmodium vivax, the most widely distributed human malaria parasite, will require a better understanding of the immune responses that confer clinical protection to patients in regions where malaria is endemic.
The occurrence of clinical protection in P. We thus analyzed immune sera from this same human population to determine if naturally acquired humoral immune responses against the merozoite surface protein 1 of P. Our results demonstrated that this association could be established with anti-PvMSP1 antibodies predominantly of the immunoglobulin G3 subclass directed against the N terminus but not against the C terminus, in spite of the latter being more immunogenic and capable of natural boosting.
This is the first report of a prospective study of P. A second generation polymerization monomeric reactants PMR polyimdes matrix system PMR 2 was characterized in both neat resin and composite form with two different graphite fiber reinforcements. Three different formulated molecular weight levels of laboratory prepared PMR 2 were examined, in addition to a purchased experimental fully formulated PMR 2 precurser solution.
Isothermal aging of graphite fibers, neat resin samples and composite specimens in air at C were investigated. Humidity exposures at 65 C and 97 percent relative humidity were conducted for both neat resin and composites for eight day periods. Composites were fire tested on a burner rig developed for this program. Results indicate that neat PMR 2 resins exhibit excellent isothermal resistance and that PMR 2 composite properties appear to be influenced by the thermo-oxidative stability of the reinforcing fiber.
Progress toward Brazilian cesium fountain second generation. The operation of a Cesium fountain primary frequency standard is strongly influenced by the characteristics of two important subsystems. The first is a stable frequency reference and the second is the frequency-transfer system.
A stable standard frequency reference is key factor for experiments that require high accuracy and precision. The frequency stability of this reference has a significant impact on the procedures for evaluating certain systematic biases in frequency standards. This paper presents the second generation of the Brazilian Cesium Fountain Br-CsF through the opto-mechanical assembly and vacuum chamber to trap atoms. We used a squared section glass profile to build the region where the atoms are trapped and colled by magneto-optical technique.
The opto-mechanical system was reduced to increase stability and robustness. This newest Atomic Fountain is essential to contribute with time and frequency development in metrology systems. AC application of second generation HTS wire. It can be engineered with a high degree of flexibility to manufacture practical 2G conductors with architectures and properties tailored for specific applications and operating conditions. For ac applications conductor and coil design can be geared towards low hysteretic losses.
For applications which experience high frequency ac fields, the stabilizer needs to be adjusted for low eddy current losses. For these applications a stainless-steel laminate is used. An example is a Low Pass Filter Inductor which was developed and built in this work. Methodology toward second generation expert systems. So-called First Generation Expert Systems were aimed at capturing the expert's know-how. Though providing remarkable achievements, this first wave did not give the expected outcome.
A new generation is getting out from the laboratories. Instead of remaining at a shallow level of knowledge - that is the unmotivated reasoning processes expressed by an expert when he is forced to tell them - one attempts to re-build this level of knowledge from the first principles which constitute the basis of an expert's knowledge. These systems are called deep knowledge-based, or second generation expert systems. Discussion in the three first parts rests on two examples: A first generation and a half system for process control in nuclear powers plants, than the system EXTRA for alarm processing in nuclear plants, wherein fonctional knowledge is explicitely represented.
We show how deep knowledge can be implemented, and the advantages that can be expected from this methodology. Qualitative Physics is discussed in the next part. Future research developments as well as potential payoffs are mentioned [fr.