Le cardinal et le philosophe (French Edition)

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enter site Among the very architects of the recent re-emergence of emergentism in the physical sciences, Robert B. Laughlin certainly occupies a prominent place. Through a series of works beginning as early as his Nobel lecture in , a lecture Reinventing Physics from the Bottom Down The subtleties of his view — it is true, often concealed in many technicalities — have accordingly, and somewhat unfortunately, mainly passed unnoticed.

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Editorial Reviews. About the Author. Philosophe, ancien ministre, Luc Ferry est l' auteur de nombreux ouvrages traduits dans une quarantaine de langues. largest community for readers. Le Cardinal Ravasi et Luc Ferry partagent leurs interrogation Read saving Le cardinal et le philosophe (French Edition).

New York: Oxford University Press. A New Look at Emergence. In this paper, we put forward a new account of emergence called "transformational emergence". Such an account captures a variety of emergence that can be considered as being diachronic and weakly ontological. The fact that The fact that transformational emergence actually constitutes a genuine form of emergence is motivated.

Besides, the account is free of traditional problems surrounding more usual, synchronic versions of emergence, and it can find a strong empirical support in a specific physical phenomenon, the fractional quantum Hall effect, which has long been touted as a paradigmatic case of emergence. View on link. The concept of genidentity has been proposed as a way to better understand identity through time, especially in physics and biology. The genidentity view is utterly anti-substantialist in so far as it suggests that the identity of X Yet applications of this concept to real science have been scarce and unsatisfying.

In this paper, our aim is to show that a well-defined concept of functional genidentity can be crucial to shed light on identity through time in classical physics and especially in biology. Finally, we show that understanding identity on the basis of continuity suggests a move towards an ontology of processes. Individuals Across the Sciences. This chapter introduces the main issues and themes of the volume. Approaches to individuality from metaphysics and philosophy of science are contrasted.

Recent philosophical developments about biological and physical individuality are Recent philosophical developments about biological and physical individuality are exposed. These research trends show how philosophy of physics and philosophy of biology address differently the question of what an individual is. Five main divergences are identified: the centrality of part-whole questions, the issue of identical individuals, the importance of the principle of identity of indiscernibles and, finally, the importance of structuralist concerns.

At the end of the chapter, the structure of the book is explained in details. The object of this paper is to look at the extent and nature of the uses of analogy during the first century following the so-called scientific revolution. In addition to giving the possibility of evaluating quantitatively the proportion of papers explicitly using analogies, this approach makes it possible to go beyond the maybe idiosyncratic cases of Descartes, Kepler or Galileo and other much studied giants of the so-called Scientific Revolution. As a result a classification of types of uses is proposed.

Relations between types of analogies and research fields are also established. Journal Name: Perspectives on Science, vol. History and Philosophy of Science. A partial elucidation of the gauge principle more. This paper argues for two points that contributeto this elucidation in the context of Yang-Mills theories. They should be interpreted together. To focus onelectrodynamics is potentially misleading.

Thus, in the contextof Yang-Mills theories, it is essentially a pragmatic principle. This does not seem to be thecase for the gauge symmetry in general relativity. Debates over religious obedience are rarely separated from discussions of the formation of national sentiment, and philosophical development in this period was undoubtedly influenced by the conflict between religious confessions. Jansenism played a considerable role in the composition of French national identity: both through spiritual opposition to the monarchy of divine right at the heart of Catholicism, and by the seminal formation of the best esprits of the period.

And Gianni Paganini, in his introduction dedicated to clandestine thought, highlights that the European circulation of clandestine manuscripts ignored national barriers. Luc Foisneau : We used the habitual meaning of this term in the 17 th century. This classic Aristotelian definition allowed us to include intellectuals in the dictionary, in any discipline, that had developed reflections on the principles of their sciences.

This last definition allowed us to include a certain number of philosophy professors from all of the colleges of France and of Navarre, and we include philosophers that were never philosophy professors. As a period of establishment of new thought and the reconfiguration of disciplines, the 17 th century made it difficult to proceed otherwise. We could ask ourselves, of course, if the link between Racine and Port-Royal justifies an analogous argument, or if the revolution introduced by Malherbe in the French language can be considered, or not, as a philosophy of language.

The reader may judge for himself.

Le cardinal et le philosophe (French Edition)

From an editorial point of view, I can only add that I attempted to inscribe the work of writers, and also that of painters and musicians, among the philosophical forms of the century. Did we have the right to do the same with politicians? No thematic introduction, it is true, allows for the reader to find an answer to this question, which I discuss in my general introduction.

Is there, in philosophy, a strong break between the 17 th and 18 th centuries? Luc Foisneau : I insisted in my general introduction upon the methodological function of an arbitrary chronological division: no intellectual event justified the inclusion of authors who had published at least one work or had written one manuscript between and , or the nominal definition of the length of a century. The papal condemnation of —the famous and little known bull Unigenitus , which committed Jansenist propositions of the text of Pasquier Quesnel—nourished a strong opposition throughout the 18 th century.

The Jansenist debate played an important role a long time after the death of Louis XIV , providing, with theological arguments, a political conflict of Jansenist parliamentarians against royal power; a conflict that would end with the French Revolution.

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The Jansenist case is exemplary of why it would be foolish to establish a clear break between the 17 th and 18 th centuries, as one debate started in the beginning of the 17 th had consequences until the end of the following century. What are these networks and how does the dictionary take them into consideration, since there are no specific articles dedicated to them? He emphasized in his work the importance of tolerance, especially religious tolerance. In the Lettres philosophiques , Voltaire discussed the effects and benefits of religious tolerance.

Voltaire dominated the discourse of his era. In his writing, he left virtually no subject untouched. Voltaire wrote on subjects as distinct as metaphysics and politics, and he circulated nearly as many books of history as he did books of political theory. In short, Voltaire greatly influenced the direction of European thought in the 18th century.

Although he died in , he is often credited as being an architect of the Revolution of According to his birth certificate he was born on November 21, , but the hypothesis that his birth was kept secret cannot be dismissed, for he stated on several occasions that in fact it took place on February He believed that he was the son of an officer named Rochebrune, who was also a songwriter.

Almost nothing is known about his mother, of whom he hardly said anything.

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How can they be identified? They should be interpreted together. Engraved frontispiece, 1 l. Too many images selected. A French treaty with paper spine. Philosophy of Physics and Symmetry. The first two volumes of Christoph Wilhelm von Kochs survey of political upheaval in Europe since the Roman Empire, the first edition.

Having lost her when he was seven, he seems to have become an early rebel against family authority. It is doubtless that he owed his positive outlook and his sense of reality to his bourgeois origins. He attended the Jesuit college of Louis-le-Grand in Paris, where he learned to love literature , the theatre , and social life.

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While he appreciated the classical taste the college instilled in him, the religious instruction of the fathers served only to arouse his skepticism and mockery. He witnessed the last sad years of Louis XIV and was never to forget the distress and the military disasters of nor the horrors of religious persecution. He retained, however, a degree of admiration for the sovereign , and he remained convinced that the enlightened kings are the indispensable agents of progress. He decided against the study of law after he left college.

Employed as secretary at the French embassy in The Hague, he became infatuated with the daughter of an adventurer. Fearing scandal, the French ambassador sent him back to Paris. After the death of Louis XIV, under the morally relaxed Regency, Voltaire became the wit of Parisian society , and his epigrams were widely quoted. Behind his cheerful facade, he was fundamentally serious and set himself to learn the accepted literary forms.

In , after the success of Oedipe , the first of his tragedies , he was acclaimed as the successor of the great classical dramatist Jean Racine and thenceforward adopted the name of Voltaire. The origin of this pen name remains doubtful. It is not certain that it is the anagram of Arouet le jeune i. Above all he desired to be the Virgil that France had never known.

He worked at an epic poem whose hero was Henry IV , the king beloved by the French people for having put an end to the wars of religion. These literary triumphs earned him a pension from the regent and the warm approval of the young queen, Marie.

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He thus began his career of court poet. United with other thinkers of his day—literary men and scientists—in the belief in the efficacy of reason , Voltaire was a philosophe , as the 18th century termed it. In the salons, he professed an aggressive Deism , which scandalized the devout. He became interested in England, the country that tolerated freedom of thought; he visited the Tory leader Viscount Bolingbroke , exiled in France—a politician, an orator, and a philosopher whom Voltaire admired to the point of comparing him to Cicero.

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His intellectual development was furthered by an accident: as the result of a quarrel with a member of one of the leading French families, the chevalier de Rohan, who had made fun of his adopted name, he was beaten up, taken to the Bastille, and then conducted to Calais on May 5, , whence he set out for London. His destiny was now exile and opposition. During a stay that lasted more than two years he succeeded in learning the English language; he wrote his notebooks in English and to the end of his life he was able to speak and write it fluently.

He was presented at court, and he dedicated his Henriade to Queen Caroline. Though at first he was patronized by Bolingbroke, who had returned from exile, it appears that he quarrelled with the Tory leader and turned to Sir Robert Walpole and the liberal Whigs. He admired the liberalism of English institutions, though he was shocked by the partisan violence.

He envied English intrepidity in the discussion of religious and philosophic questions and was particularly interested in the Quakers. He was convinced that it was because of their personal liberty that the English, notably Sir Isaac Newton and John Locke, were in the forefront of scientific thought. He believed that this nation of merchants and sailors owed its victories over Louis XIV to its economic advantages. He returned to France at the end of or the beginning of and decided to present England as a model to his compatriots. His social position was consolidated. By judicious speculation he began to build up the vast fortune that guaranteed his independence.

He attempted to revive tragedy by discreetly imitating Shakespeare. At the same time, Voltaire had turned to a new literary genre: history. The interest he felt for the extraordinary character of this great soldier impelled him to write his life, Histoire de Charles XII , a carefully documented historical narrative that reads like a novel. Great men are not warmongers; they further civilization—a conclusion that tallied with the example of England. It was this line of thought that Voltaire brought to fruition, after prolonged meditation, in a work of incisive brevity: the Lettres philosophiques These fictitious letters are primarily a demonstration of the benign effects of religious toleration.

A philosopher worthy of the name, such as Newton , disdains empty, a priori speculations; he observes the facts and reasons from them.

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After elucidating the English political system , its commerce, its literature, and the Shakespeare almost unknown to France, Voltaire concludes with an attack on the French mathematician and religious philosopher Pascal : the purpose of life is not to reach heaven through penitence but to assure happiness to all men by progress in the sciences and the arts, a fulfillment for which their nature is destined.

This small, brilliant book is a landmark in the history of thought: not only does it embody the philosophy of the 18th century, but it also defines the essential direction of the modern mind. Scandal followed publication of this work that spoke out so frankly against the religious and political establishment. The life these two lived together was both luxurious and studious. The action of Alzire —in Lima, Peru, at the time of the Spanish conquest—brings out the moral superiority of a humanitarian civilization over methods of brute force.

At the same time, he continued to pursue his historical studies.

French Books

It was at Cirey that Voltaire, rounding out his scientific knowledge, acquired the encyclopaedic culture that was one of the outstanding facets of his genius. When the War of the Austrian Succession broke out, Voltaire was sent to Berlin —43 on a secret mission to rally the king of Prussia—who was proving himself a faithless ally—to the assistance of the French army. The performance of Mahomet , in which Voltaire presented the founder of Islam as an imposter, was forbidden, however, after its successful production in Yet he was not spared disappointments.

Louis XV disliked him, and the pious Catholic faction at court remained acutely hostile. He was guilty of indiscretions. Ill and exhausted by his restless existence, he at last discovered the literary form that ideally fitted his lively and disillusioned temper: he wrote his first contes stories.

Zadig is a kind of allegorical autobiography: like Voltaire, the Babylonian sage Zadig suffers persecution, is pursued by ill fortune, and ends by doubting the tender care of Providence for human beings.