After the TV advertising push, sales jumped 30 million books in two years, hitting 72 million in Grescoe says that by the mids, the company printed , copies of every single fucking book. By the end of the decade, Harlequin had spent several years perched atop a golden goose. In the book business, stores can return unsold inventory for a refund, which often screws with publishers' balance sheets.
Harlequin's returns were the envy of the industry. Their market share was unrivalled. The world was theirs. And they'd done it all without especially dramatic changes to the books. Via Grescoe, here's author Violet Winspear explaining her approach:. I put all these cruel manly words into these men's mouths… and then work so as he makes a grab for the girl. And then she's half fainting, you know what I mean, with a burning desire, which she doesn't even understand herself.
And then he's bruising her mouth with his urgent, demanding kisses, and he's got this strange steely light in his eyes. And I get it so the girl says to herself, 'What does it mean, what does it mean? Even outside Presents, it was increasingly explicit that the tension simmering between hero and heroine was sexual in nature, even if it was never consummated outside the bonds of holy matrimony: these were the glory days of the punishing kisses.
His power over the heroine is exercised mainly through sexual domination, but he is also the richer and more powerful of the two; often, he is her boss. There are always exceptions when you talk about something so diverse as Harlequin, but I think it's fair to say the s were peak jerk.
The absolute low point of reporting this article was reading a Harlequin Presents by Anne Hampson, in which the "hero" kidnaps the heroine and tells her either they get married or he rapes her. I couldn't even make it halfway through. While they published authors from around the Commonwealth lord, the Australian romances! They turned Nora Roberts down multiple times; in a interview with the journal Para-Doxa , she said: "I received my manuscript back with a nice little note which said that my work showed promise, and the story had been very entertaining and well done.
The Doctor's Private Visit (Mills & Boon Kimani) (Kimani Romance). Kindle Edition Taming Her Tycoon (Mills & Boon Kimani) (Knights of Los Angeles, Book 1). Leggi «The Doctor's Private Visit (Mills & Boon Kimani)» di AlTonya Washington disponibile su Rakuten Harlequin Kimani Romance March Box Set.
But they Harlequin already had their American writer. Roberts means Janet Dailey, who wrote hugely popular westerns. For Harlequin, Dailey was all they needed. They'd gotten a little too comfortable. Harlequin's monopoly on the market was a state of affairs too good to continue forever, and it was inevitable that other publishers would take notice and start angling for their own cut.
In the late '70s, Harlequin made it easier for everyone by shooting themselves in the foot.
They decided they could handle American sales with their own team, cutting ties with Simon and Schuster's Pocket Books, previously their distributor below the 49th parallel. If you have this on VHS somewhere, I am begging you to send it my way.
Silhouette had plenty of manuscripts to pick from, because there were scads of American women who wanted to write romance but didn't have a snowball's chance with Harlequin and their Brit-controlled editorial department. Company politics made the situation even worse: Grescoe reports that a Canadian-based editor had made multiple attempts to launch an American line, commissioning manuscripts that would ultimately get scotched.
Guess where agents went to sell those finished but homeless books? You guessed it—Silhouette. In magazines from the period like McCalls, you'll see giant full-color advertisements for Harlequin and Silhouette practically side-by-side in the same issue, jostling among the consumer packaged goods and the coupons. Silhouette eventually sweet-talked Dailey onto their list and made her their star attraction, parking her square in their TV commercials and magazine ads, too. Yet another giant fuck-you to the Canadians:. Meanwhile, other publishers were piling on; seemingly every company decided to launch its own category line.
Dell had Candlelight Ecstasy, whose covers alone are enough to tell you these were sexier, more explicit reads. Berkley launched Second Chance at Love. Bantam had Circle of Love, which, judging by the ads, were sweet enough to make your teeth hurt. Fawcett made a crack at the model with historicals sold as Coventry Romance. You get a category romance line! And you get a category romance line! Everybody gets a category romance line! The fight was vicious but brief. In , Harlequin purchased Silhouette. By the late '80s, several competitors had folded RIP, Candlelight Ecstasy, your covers were too fine for this world.
In , president David Galloway was back to trumpeting the company's 75 to 80 percent "series" romance market share to the Financial Post. The "romance wars" of the '80s this is a real term adopted by the business press to describe the bitter industry brawl, it is not my coinage fragmented the market into a million bosomy pieces. Silhouette, now a Harlequin subsidiary, still retained substantial independence. Bantam's Loveswept had survived the reckoning, as did Zebra. Avon had emerged as a major single-title publisher and exerted increasing influence over the genre. With so much more competition, things got interesting again.
For one thing, the Americans had stormed the gates, and they wanted to experiment with new characters and plots and settings and dynamics. Nora Roberts, talking to Para-Doxa :. When Silhouette opened in , looking specifically for new American writers to tip at the Harlequin format a bit, it opened a new era for romance and offered an entire generation of writers a chance…. This is the primary reason, I believe, that category romance, and the entire romance market, has grown and evolved over the years.
The American market was poised for the change, for stronger heroines, less domineering heroes, for more contemporary themes. For myself, and many of the writers who started during the early 80s, we were readers of the genre first. We knew what we wanted to read. So we wrote what appealed to us. And it worked. As Roberts describes, this maligned corner of the business—so often treated as the same book over and over and over—turned into a laboratory for innovation. So you could put in a book that was a little wacky and see if it worked.
Categories also became the place where many big names got their start. Women like Roberts, Dailey, Linda Howard, Sandra Brown and Elizabeth Lowell, who'd go onto tremendous success, launched their careers in categories, in the midst of the change prompted by the romance wars; later writers like Lori Foster and Jennifer Crusie would follow the same path. Another development in this period: Harlequins weren't so chaste anymore.
The world had changed since Mary Bonnycastle was handpicking doctor-nurse romances. Peyton Place was published in ; Woodstock happened in ; Deep Throat hit theaters in Other romance publishers were getting raunchy, too, and this is where the "bodice ripper" comes in. Though I hate this snotty term, it's useful as a way to point to a different strain within the romance genre—a type of book totally distinct from Harlequins. The term sprang from the sweeping, sexed-up historical romances of the mid-to-late s, a boom that kicked off when Avon editor Nancy Coffey fished Kathleen Woodiwiss's The Flame and the Flower out of the slush pile.
These books were the farthest thing from innocent, chock full of bedroom scenes. Honestly, I find some of them tougher going than the syrupy doctor-nurse romances of the s, because they traffic heavily in "forced seduction. But they featured a feistier brand of heroine, they were more overt and, increasingly, explicitly tied sexual pleasure to the happily-ever-after.
Take this passage from Woodiwiss's The Wolf and the Dove , published in , which follows the post-Conquest travails of dispossessed Saxon Aislinn and conquering Norman Wulfgar the very first romance I ever read :. Her heart trembled under his demanding passion. It touched a quickness deep within her, a glowing spark that grew and grew until it seemed to shower her with burning embers.
A thousand suns burst within her and spread their surging heat in ever flooding tides to the very limits of her senses. With a gasp she rose against him, her eyes widening and staring in amazement into the gray ones bent upon her. Purple as hell, sure, but unmistakably an orgasm. Did I mention at one point the hero chains the heroine at the foot of his bed, where she sleeps in a pile of pelts? The result was ultimately more empowered heroines and more frank, unembarrassed sexuality.
Unfortunately, within Harlequins—at least at first—this more liberated sexuality was less often claimed freely by the heroine than taken forcibly by "heroes" who sometimes read today like simulacra crafted from used condoms and wadded-up guitar tabs for "Blurred Lines. They didn't necessarily go over so well at the time, either. In Reading the Romance , published in and one of the better-known academic texts on the genre, one of the interviewees complains: "I get tired of it if they [the heroes] keep grabbing and using sex as a weapon for domination because they want to win a struggle of the wills.
I'm tending to get quite a few of these in Harlequins and I think they're terrible. But the long history of Harlequin does a lot to explain why "no no no OK actually yes" became such a popular trope. Download Sculptures soudanaises. With illustrations PDF. Enciclopedia dei vini del mondo. Clarke PDF Download. Free F. Free Il punto di vista del cavallo.
Caravaggio PDF Download. La comunicazione fra committenti e progettisti di siti internet PDF Download. Free The noble science a few general ideas on fox-hunting, for the use of the rising generation of sportsmen, and more especially those of the Hertfordshire hunt club. Free Trio. Stories by W. Somerset Maugham. Screen adaptation by W. Maugham, R. Sherriff and Noel Langley. With plates, including a portrait PDF Download.
Free Walsh and Hoyt's Clinical Neuro-ophthalmology: v. Fewer stavudine related adverse effects were seen in patients 60 kg treated with 30 mg stavudine compared to those who received 40 mg 4. The onset of drug related toxicities was principally in the first year of commencing therapy. Similar immunologic outcomes were demonstrated across all the treatment groups with median CD4 cell counts after 12 months of treatment more than doubling for patients in all the study cohorts. The findings support the use of combination antiretroviral therapy regimens containing low dose stavudine in Kenya.
Key words: Low -dose stavudine, combination antiretroviral therapy, HIV, stavudine tolerability. Oral infection with Herpes Simplex Virus HSV is a frequent and well documented complication in immunosuppressed individuals including patients on immunosuppressive medication. We report the development of severe oral infection with HSV type 1 in a 34 year old woman with type 1 diabetes mellitus and end stage renal disease ESRD following cadaveric renal transplantation at the Western General Hospital, Edinburgh.
The role of acyclovir in therapy and chemoprophylaxis is discussed. Food security is at risk, particularly in sub-saharan Africa where local production remains largely rain-fed. Given that climate variability is likely to increase with increasing greenhouse gas emissions, it is more important than ever to understand how this variability can be managed to reduce the negative consequences.
The impact is already significant. In Malawi, for example, as a result of the drought, approximately 5 million people needed emergency food aid, which took a long time to be delivered. A similar situation occurred in Niger in — when approximately 2. In , approximately 3. We report a case of a 44 year old man who presented with right gluteal pain following trivial trauma, associated with unusual bones, with all the characteristics of clavicles articulating with the pelvic girdle.
The pain on that side was completely relieved by excision of the bone. Background Osgood-Schlatter disease is a common cause of anterior knee pain in the adolescent. Treatment is usually conservative with surgery reserved for those who do not respond to this treatment. There is little published work regarding the experience with the disease in our local set up.
This series documents the experience with 35 adolescents treated for the disease. Subjects Thirty five adolescents with clinical and radiological diagnoses of Osgood-Schlatter disease at Nairobi and Kenyatta National Hospitals, between and Method Patients were evaluated for demographics, knee involvement, activities associated with pain and treatment outcome. Results There were 28 males and 7 females, aged 10 to 16 years mean Thirteen had bilateral knee involvement. Twenty two were involved in active sports while the rest had constant pain and unable to sit or kneel. A family history of the disease was documented in one case.
Thirty adolescents responded well to the conservative treatment. In the five adolescents who underwent surgery, the patella tendon was edematous with thickening of the tendon sheath and neovascularisation. All the operated adolescents returned to active sports with 6 weeks after the surgery. Conclusion Osgood-Schlatter disease is a self-limiting condition in majority of adolescents.
Surgery when indicated has an excellent outcome. Background The maintenance of satisfactory alignment in distal radial fractures following closed reduction and casting of the forearm is challenging. The local scenario is unexplored. Objective This study sought to determine the rate of redisplacement in isolated closed distal radial fractures in children aged years and the factors contributing to the redisplacement.
Patients and Methods This was a prospective study carried out between June and February Patients were recruited from casualty, where the fracture was reduced and casted. Immediate check x-rays were taken to ascertain satisfactory alignment. At follow up the fractures were evaluated for redisplacement in the fracture clinic in the second and fourth weeks with further check x-rays. Redisplacement was regarded as the presence of dorsal or volar- angulation of greater than The data was collected and entered into statistical package for social sciences SPSS Results Ninety-two patients were evaluated.
Overall redisplacement rate was Factors significantly associated with redisplacement included initial displacement, completeness of fracture and non-satisfactory initial reduction. Conclusion The rate of redisplacement of The success of re-manipulation at the KNH is unsatisfactory. Percutaneous K-wiring should be considered for those with complete fractures with displacement that do not achieve perfect reduction at initial check radiographic film.
Abstract Buried river channels are increasing becoming the target for groundwater exploration due to the unreliability of surface river channels that have been affected by climate changes. Areas located in urban centers like Nakuru town have high population that dictates the higher demand of water. This research covered the geophysical mapping of buried river channels and other shallow structures recharging major aquifers in the upper Nakuru basin of Kenya rift and in particular the Kabatini area.
The project aimed at unveiling scientific knowledge of the subsurface geology using resistivity and magnetic geophysical methods. Solving of water shortages and improvement of livelihood for the people of Nakuru and its neighbor hood through proper and more precise geophysical ground water exploration methods was of great importance. The ultimate goal of the report is to provide guidance to policy makers in decision making especially for ground water extraction in Kabatini aquifer.
Geology and hydro-geology of the area have been discussed in the report. The field methods used included vertical electrical sounding, electrical resistivity tomography and magnetic survey. The findings of the research ascertain that Kabatini area has underground river channel that flows in the north — south direction. The research also shows that the area has some shallow structures which contain low resistivity materials in different locations. It has also been ascertained that the thickness of Kabatini aquifer is more than m. Phytochemical investigation of the leaf surface exudate of Dodonaea angustifolia L.
In addition, ten known compounds were identified. The structures were determined on the basis of spectroscopic evidence. This additional chemical information could contribute towards solving the taxonomical controversy that exists between Dodonaea angustifolia and Dodonaea viscosa Jacq.
Chromatographic separation of the roots of a Kenyan medicinal plant, Clerodendrum eriophyllum, led to the isolation of ten abietane diterpenoids , one of which 1 was isolated for the first time from a natural source. Using spectroscopic data, the structure of 1 was determined to be hydroxy-8,abietadiene-3,11,trione. Circular dichroism CD spectra showed that the stereochemistry of compounds 1, 3, and belongs to the normal series of abietane diterpenes, which confirmed the absolute stereochemistry of the isolated compounds.
Compounds were evaluated for their in vitro antiplasmodial, antileishmanial, antifungal and antibacterial activities. In addition, compounds 3 and 9 exhibited potent antileishmanial activity IC50 0. This study investigated the effectiveness of three physical-chemical methods namely; pH adjustment, precipitation with alum and the use of polyelectrolytes. In the treatment of diary wastewater from Brookeside milk processing plant. It also investigated the drainability of the sludge produced by each of the three methods. Laboratory tests were carried out in three different batches, one for each of the three methods.
In the alum method enough alum was added to the wastewater samples to cause precipitation by sweep floc. In the pH adjustment method, the pH of samples were lowered to the iso-electric point of the casein proteins of approximately pH 4. The polyelectrolytes method involved the use of two polyelectrolytes, Sudfloc and Sudfloc each of which was used to coagulate the dirty wastewater. For each of the three methods, the samples were taken in one-litre beakers and subjected to Jar tests to determine the optimum dosages. After one hour of settling the supernatants were decanted and subjected to standard Chemical Oxygen Demand COD tests, turbidity and pH measurements.
The settled sludge was subjected to drainability studies. Results showed the treatment of dairy wastewater by the three physical-chemical methods to be effective. The use of the sudfloc polyelectrolytes was found to be the least demanding in terms of effluent quality control as no pH adjustments of either the wastewater or the effluent was required. The use of polyelectolytes produced the least volumes of sludge and also the better drainability and solids concentration.
Sudfloc was found to achieve better results than Sudfloc in terms of COD reduction and the drainability of sludge produced although both achieved the same drainability studies. This study showed that each of the three physical-chemical methods can be used effectively to remove the white colour of dairy wastewater as well as the bulk of the proteins and fats, hence, enabling the discharge of the effluents into natural waters to be of good assimilative capacity.
Abstract This paper presents the results of a combined experimental and theoretical study of microstructure and thermal shock resistance of an aluminosilicate ceramic. Shock-induced crack growth is studied in sintered structures produced from powders with different particle size ranges.
The resulting crack-tip shielding levels due to viscoelastic crack bridging are estimated using fracture mechanics concepts. The implications of the work are discussed for the design of high refractory ceramics against thermal shock. Kenya is a developing country aspiring to gain the status of an industrialized country by the year In pursuit of this political goal various policies and targets are being proposed and pursued.
It has thus become very apparent that the stated goal would not be achieved unless there is sufficient exploitable energy available to meet the anticipated demand. To this end various options such as nuclear energy, exploration of oil, exploitation of the geothermal energy reservoirs, building of windmills for energy generation, solar energy, and biofuels are proposed. It has been anaylsed for morphological and optoelectrical properties by scanning electron microscopy, surface photovoltage spectrscopy and temperature dependent JUT.
The device has been found to undergo thermally activated recombination at high temperatures while tunneling enhanced recombination dominates the process at low temperatures. Nanotechnology is the understanding and control of matter at dimensions between approximately 1 and nanometers, where unique phenomena enable novel applications. Encompassing nanoscale science, engineering, and technology, nanotechnology involves imaging, measuring, modeling, and manipulating matter at this length scale.
Increased energy efficiency, a cleaner environment, more effective medical treatment and improved manufacturing production are just some of the potential benefits of nanotechnology. Biologists, chemists, physicists and engineers are all involved in the study of substances at the nanoscale.
This study evaluated applicability of these systems in estimating mortality and morbidity risks in a cohort of patients undergoing laparotomy at the national referral hospital in Nairobi, Kenya. Results The overall observed to expected O:E ratio using linear analysis was 0. The area under ROC curve was 0. In this study, at least twenty-eight 28 indigenous species which are popular among Kenyan herbalists have been collected from the Rift Valley and central parts of Kenya.
Preliminary chemical analysis of the Ocimum genus has revealed several different components of essential oils. There is evidence that further and more intensive research on the medicinal aspects of the family is called for. A twenty year retrospective study was carried out in the Small Animal Clinic, University of Nairobi, Kenya and in a private Small Animal Clinic in Nairobi between the years to A total of bitches had been presented with reproductive problems.
The cases were categorically grouped according to the type of infertility diagnosed. Non-infectious infertilities were sixty nine percent and infectious types were thirty one percent.
Only two percent of the latter were confirmed in one clinic. It was evident from the results of this study that infectious infertility exists among the bitches in Kenya and it would be beneficial to do further studies to establish the causative agents to avert any possible outbreaks of zoonotic diseases. Antiretrovirals have been associated with serious adverse drug reactions. Several factors have been suggested as independent risk factors for their development. Identification of these factors may help in prevention and management of the adverse drug reactions.
Current standard regimens in resource-limited countries are associated with an increased risk of adverse drug reactions. METHODS: Three hundred and fifty seven local residents with visually impairing cataract, presenting at screening sites in Kwale District, Kenya were clinically assessed and interviewed. A standardized questionnaire asked for socio-demographic data and prior cataract surgery in one eye.
After interview, patients were offered free surgery. Primary outcome was the mean QoL-score between acceptors and non-acceptors. Secondary outcomes were visual acuity and socio-demographic factors and their contribution to QoL-scores and the decision on acceptance or refusal. Vision-related QoL was poorer in people accepting than in those refusing mean score People with poor visual acuity were only slightly more likely to accept surgery than people with better vision; the strongest predictors of acceptance were the QoL-score and gender.
Men were twice as likely to accept compared to women. Of people who accepted surgery, QoL-scores provide further insight into which individuals will agree to surgery and it might be useful to adapt the QoL-questions for field use. Gender inequities remain a matter of concern with men being more likely to get sight-restoring surgery. We assume and apply a single value for CCT mum in applanation tonometry estimates, although there is compelling evidence that CCT varies between individuals. The mean age was The Minimal Resolution Conjecture is known and has been verified for Projective Spaces of dimension 2 and 3.
Also there many counter examples for example for 11 points in a Projective Space of dimension 6, 12 points in a Projective Spaces of dimension 7. However, for Projective Spaces of dimension 4, it is believed to be true but the complete proof has not been written up so far. F Lauze tackled part of the resolution in his thesis.
Design: Laboratory based comparative cross-sectional study. Results: Thyroid stimulating hormone levels were not altered following treatment whereas the levels of FT4 decreased. It is debatable whether interventions for low FT4 is necessary in ARV treatment but a longitudinal study would explain the progressive trend of thyroid hormones and implications with HAART treatment. Low levels of thyroid hormone FT 4 may be an adaptive response by thyroid gland to minimize calorie utilisation as in chronic diseases.
To detect the response of this lake system to climate fluctuations and their possible driving mechanisms with a focus on abrupt vs. The sediments have been investigated for sediment characteristics such as grain size distributions, detrital and authigenic mineral phases, geochemical properties and microfossil assemblages. The stratigraphy for the sequences is based on 38 AMS 14C ages of biogenic carbonate and charcoal samples. Parallel dating of charcoal and snail-shell samples show age differences between 1,, years suggesting a remarkably high, but well-defined reservoir age for palaeo-Lake Suguta most likely due to aged groundwater or 14C depleted CO2 degassing from active volcanoes.
The observed reservoir effect highlights the potential problems while correlating East African lake level records with chronologies based on 14C datings of aquatic materials. The new chronology of water level fluctuations in the amplifier-lake Suguta indicates a general dry-wet-dry cycle synchronous with other lake chronologies during the AHP and multiple short-term fluctuations with abrupt lake level drops between to m within to years at In contrast, the termination of the overall lake episode during the AHP shows a relatively gradual linear response to the reduction of solar heating due to insolation changes.
The results of the analysis provides new insights into the sensitivity of Rift Valley lakes to climate change on different time scales. Abrupt climate shifts most likely caused dramatic environmental pressure on the biosphere, including humans that were already able to adopt relatively quickly to environmnetal change by new technologies during this time.
The antibacterial activity of methanol extracts was determined as the minimum inhibitory concentration MIC. The most susceptible bacteria were B. The present study supports the use of these plants by the herbalists in the management of bacterial ailments. Aim of the study: This study was conducted to document herbal medicines used in the treatment of malaria as well as the existing knowledge, attitudes and practices related to malaria recognition, control and treatment in South Coast, Kenya. Methods: Data was collected using semistructured questionnaires and interviews.
A focused group discussion held with the community members, one in each of the study villages supplemented the interview and questionnaire survey. Results: The respondents were found to have a good understanding of malaria and could distinguish it from other fever types. They were also aware that malaria was spread by mosquitoes. Malaria prevalence was high, and affected individuals an average of four times a year. Community members avoided mosquito bites by using mosquito nets, clearing bushes around their homesteads and burning plant parts to generate smoke.
They prevented and treated malaria by taking decoctions or concoctions of traditional herbal remedies. Forty plant species in thirty-five genera distributed in twenty-four families were used as antimalarials in the study area. Five plant species, namely; Heeria insignis Del. Anacardiaceae , Rottboelia exaltata L. F Gramineae , Pentanisia ouranogyne S. Moore Rubiaceae , Agathisanthenum globosum A. Rich Tiliaceae are documented for the first time in South Coast, Kenya, for the treatment of malaria. Conclusions: The plants documented in the current study are a potential source for new bioactive compounds of therapeutic value in malaria treatment.
The results provide data for further pharmacological and toxicological studies and development of commercial antimalarial phytotherapy products. Sesamum latifolium is a progenitor of the cultivated Sesamum indicum. The plant has medicinal value, is used as forage, and is a potential donor of genes for crop improvement.
The seeds of this species do not germinate readily when harvested and sown under standard conditions. Inability to germinate hampers the exploitation of this species in crop improvement programmes as well as viability assessments by genebank curators and seed stockists. Various dormancy release mechanisms were tested on the germination of seeds of Sesamum latifolium with a view to determining the nature of dormancy and the appropriate release mechanism in this species.
Pre-stored and freshly harvested seeds were used. An imbibition experiment assessed the permeability of the seed coat to water. Optimum germination temperatures were determined using a two-way thermogradient plate. Effects of surgical exposure of the embryonic axis, nipping away from the embryonic axis, and gibberellic acid application were also tested. The studies revealed that the seeds of this species have non-deep physiological dormancy and require alternating temperatures together with surgical exposure of the embryonic axis, gibberellic acid, or dry after-ripening.
The appropriate dormancy release procedure when testing for seed viability of this species through a germination test is recommended. Mucuna Mucuna pruriens is a legume with high but unexploited potential for food and soil fertility improvement. Use of the seed as food is limited by the hard-to-cook defect and the presence of several antinutritional factors notably the non-protein amino acid, 3, 4.
A series of acetylenic chalcones were evaluated for antimalarial and antitubercular activity. The antimalarial data for this series suggests that growth inhibition of the W2 strain of Plasmodium falciparum can be imparted by the introduction of a methoxy group ortho to the acetylenic group. Most compounds were more active against non-replicating than replicating cultures of Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv, an unusual pattern with respect to existing anti-TB agents. The objective was to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility of the non-sorbitol fermenting Escherichia coli colonies from cattle feaces and milk samples collected from Dagoretti division in Nairobi.
A total of feacal and milk were collected from urban dairy farming households while non-dairy households provided milk samples. The samples were used for culture and isolation of E.
Antibiotic susceptibility patterns showed that isolates of E. There was a high percentage resistance to sulphamethoxazole in feacal samples isolates The feacal isolates had a low resistance to ampicilin 1. The other antibiotics showed varied resistance pattern with feacal isolates having a high percentage resistance to tetracyclines 6.
Multiple antibiotic resistances was observed in feacal sample isolates 6. Non-sorbitol fermenting E. The study demonstrated similar immunologic outcomes in the treatment groups given either 30 or 40 mg stavudine, with median CD4 cell counts after 12 months of treatment more than doubling for patients in all the study cohorts. Key words Low-dose stavudine, combination antiretroviral therapy, HIV, stavudine tolerability. However, despite a long history of epidemiological studies, there are still gaps in our knowledge of the social epidemiology of African female sex work.
For example, the basic question of why some women enter into sex work, while others in the same socio-economic environment never do, remains under researched. We investigated this question for two samples of same-aged women, one of whom is currently practicing commercial sex, and another who has never done so. Both come from the informal urban settlement of Kibera, located in Nairobi, Kenya.
Inclusion of another sample of women who can serve as comparisons to female sex workers is a notable feature of our research design, and one missing from many ecological and intervention studies. Using respondent driven sampling, we collected socio-economic and sexual behavioural data for a total for women, evenly divided between female sex workers and Kibera women working in other occupations e.
Results of univariate and multivariate analyses testing this hypothesis are discussed with respect to the African cultural practice of child fostering and future interventions. Although antiretroviral therapy ART prolongs life and reduces infectiousness, in some contexts it has been associated with increased sexual risk taking.
Sexual behaviour with casual clients did not change after ART initiation; condom use increased and STI incidence decreased in both cases and controls, likely due to successful cohort-wide HIV prevention efforts. ART provision was not associated with increases in unsafe sex in this core transmission group. Epub Nov 9. Effects of a mobile phone short message service on antiretroviral treatment adherence in Kenya WelTel Kenya1 : a randomised trial.
However, data on the effects of mobile health technology on patient outcomes in resource-limited settings are limited. We aimed to assess whether mobile phone communication between health-care workers and patients starting antiretroviral therapy in Kenya improved drug adherence and suppression of plasma HIV-1 RNA load. Patients were randomised by simple randomisation with a random number generating program to a mobile phone short message service SMS intervention or standard care.
Patients in the intervention group received weekly SMS messages from a clinic nurse and were required to respond within 48 h. Randomisation, laboratory assays, and analyses were done by investigators masked to treatment allocation; however, study participants and clinic staff were not masked to treatment. The primary analysis was by intention to treat. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.
Mobile phones might be effective tools to improve patient outcome in resource-limited settings. All rights reserved. Am J Epidemiol. Epub Jul Assessment of changes in condom use among female sex workers in a prospective cohort study introducing diaphragm use for disease prevention. Changes in the rates of condom use and number of sexual partners were evaluated among female sex workers in Kibera, Kenya, participating in a 6-month study of diaphragm safety and acceptability for prevention of sexually transmitted infections conducted in Analyses were stratified by partner type.
Multivariable Tobit regression modeling was used to assess the association between study visit and proportion of acts protected. Participants completed baseline visits and bimonthly follow-up visits. Similar increases were observed for condom use by all partner types. Additionally, the mean number of sexual partners decreased over the study. Furthermore, consistent i. These findings suggest that, despite concerns that introduction of the diaphragm would result in more risky sexual behaviors, reported condom use increased and number of partners decreased.
I have picked this evaluation because it focuses on the special needs of migrant female sex workers FSWs , in particular those in Sub-Saharan Africa, where the prevalence of sexually transmitted infections STls and HIV is high and the health infrastructure is insufficient to respond to these problems.
In addition, migrant FSWs might initially be too afraid to immediately seek medical help in the 'new country' due to the fear of being apprehended for real or perceived reasons. By the same token, they might not have access to male or female condoms, but may have a high incidence of partner change and unprotected sex.
Fear of stigma and discrimination might also keep them away from appropriate services. This study demonstrates the need to address the existing inadequacies of CM patient outcomes in Kenya. Abstract Anaesthetic agents used locally can be toxic especially if given as an inappropriate dose or route.
Lipid infusion has been demonstrated in several animal models to successfully resuscitate bupivacaine induced toxicity. A chemical investigation of the petroleum ether extract and chloroform extract of the root of Uvaria scheffleri Diels Annonaceae led to the isolation of two new compounds, named hydroxyespintanol 1 and schefflerichalcone 2 , together with eight known compounds The structural elucidation of compounds 1 and 2 by spectroscopic studies is described.
The cytotoxicity of the isolated compounds against human promyelocytic leukemia HL cells was studied. Among these, 2'-hydroxy-3',4',6'-trimethoxychalcone 5 exhibited cytotoxicity IC 50 12 microM , and espintanol 3 , which was the main ingredient, also showed some cytotoxicity IC 50 44 microM.
Old stems and leaves are chewed for the management of toothaches and sore throats. Extracts of the plant were subjected to tests for antimalarial, antibacterial and antifungal activity. The toxicity of the extracts was assessed using the brine shrimp lethality bioassay. The stem and leaf extracts had insignificant antiplasmodial activity. The LD50 values of the stem and leaf methanol extracts against the brine shrimp larvae was The in vitro anti malarial activity of the root extract in part supports the ethnobotanical use of the plant to manage malaria.
This study analyzed changes in natural resources in Machakos District of Kenya using participatory approaches. The results show that natural resources have decreased since the ranch became a settlement scheme. Natural forests decreased, vast land was cleared, rivers dried-up while soil erosion, drought, temperatures and land degradation increased. Land productivity declined and most farmers abandoned the traditional crops for modern high value crops.
However, farmers adopted various coping strategies. Drought resistant crops, early maturing crops and water harvesting were some of the strategies adopted by farmers.
Additionally, the mean number of sexual partners decreased over the study. Confira o seu carrinho. Field of Pleasure by Farrah Rochon. Delaney Diamond. Peters of New York University. Most compounds were more active against non-replicating than replicating cultures of Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv, an unusual pattern with respect to existing anti-TB agents.
The results also show that resource base management at the community level was still a challenge and a lot of investment needed to be made in this area. As part of the study, farmers knowledge of changes in natural resource use was assessed in a resettlement area. Over a period of about 50 years, significant land degradation has occurred as a result of increased population pressure, poor natural resource management and climate change effects.
Farmers responded by moving away from growing indigenous crops to growing short-duration crop. Maize grain yield is constrained by inadequate supply of nitrogen caused by insufficient application of fertilizers that are found to be costly and unaffordable in smallholder farming. Therefore there is need to search for locally available and potentially low-cost N sources.
Beneficial residual effect from mucuna biomass application during subsequent cropping seasons of maize, hence fertilizer saving, is considered one of the possible solutions. However, there are residual aspects of herbaceous legume green manure application that are not clear and warrant further investigation: The application rate of green manure biomass required to make substantial residual effect on yield of maize produced in subsequent cropping seasons is unknown.
The effect of mucuna green manure application rate on seasonal persistence of the residual influence is not adequately described. Consequently, on-farm research was carried out in southwest Kenya in the period The objective was to determine residual effect of mucuna green manure application rate on maize grain yield during the subsequent first and second cropping seasons after incorporation. Treatments investigated were: mucuna green manure applied at rates of 0, 30, 60, , and kg N haG1; and inorganic fertilizer-urea at 30, 60 and kg N haG1.
At tissue N concentration of 1. Randomized complete block design with three replications was used and maize variety H planted. Data was collected on maize grain yield at harvest. Genstat discovery edition 2 was used in data analysis. Results obtained showed that mucuna green manure and inorganic fertilizer-urea N do not have residual effect on maize grain yield during the first and second subsequent planting seasons, regardless of the rate applied.
These being wide range of mucuna application rates, 1. Low crop yields in the semi arid areas of Kenya have been attributed to, among other factors, low soilfertility, low farm inputs, labour constraints and inappropriate tillage practices that lead to pulverized soils. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of legume cover crops LCC on soil propertiesand maize growth in the semi arid area of MachakosmDistrict, Kenya.
Results from the field experiments showed that rainfall amount and its distribution affected the growth and yield of dolichos and maize. The penetration resistance in all the plots ranged from 3. There were also siginificant changes in soil N in plots which were under dolichos compared to plots without dolichos. The results obtained in this study also indicated that subsoiling in combination with dolichos had the greatest potential of improving soil properties and crop yields in semi arid environments of Kenya.
The records were from carcasses obtained from the peri-urban area of airobi during a year period between and