One of the difficulties that women face is that social networks in organizations tend to be segregated by sex.
Flowers are still there. Then I have to go away and spend two or three weeks producing it. Figure 5: Exterior view of window in the column. I wanted to wander endlessly, appreciating, enjoying the detail… but then stepping away to view it as a whole brought a new perspective, and I felt like I was looking at a long line of unique characters holding hands to provide a show for the audience. Silver Lake. First get a house and a wife and an ox to draw and the judiciary follows, cornfed in its balloon robes. Green tea resting on large concrete planter box to my right, strong smell of piss.
More generally, female managers and male managers from minority groups need to form more diverse networks and more contacts outside their work teams in order to advance, whereas White male managers can draw on homogenous networks Ibarra, Both female and male managers of color can have even less access to White male-dominated social networks than White women do Catalyst, ; Ibarra, Furthermore, African American women often reported that they felt themselves to be outsiders in their own organizations.
Mentors who hold powerful positions are in a position to offer considerable career facilitation. Yet, mentoring relationships also tend to form along same-sex lines. Race can also affect mentoring, and one study showed that Black women were less likely than White women and Black men to receive mentoring from the highest status managers, who generally are White men Thomas, Ironically, by providing much of the social glue that helps organizations to function smoothly, women may fail to advance. Useful relationships can be forged, for example, from after-dinner drinks with colleagues or weekend golf outings with potential clients and customers.
Even during ordinary work hours, informal networking can be difficult for women if influential networks are composed almost entirely of men. In these contexts, women usually have less legitimacy and influence and, therefore, benefit less than men from participation. Challenges of Obtaining Desirable Assignments One of the benefits of social capital is that it facilitates opportunities to gain appropriately demanding assignments, known as developmental job experiences.
Becoming recognized for solving problems acknowledged as challenging speeds advancement to upper level management, but social capital is a prerequisite for winning the chance to take on such projects e. Given stereotypical norms about whether women or men are optimal for various types of manage- ment, men are more often channeled into line management, with its better opportunities to ascend into senior leadership.
When companies are facing financial downturns and declining performance, executives have a fairly high risk of failure. Companies may be more willing to have female executives take these risks, and women may be more willing to accept such positions, given their lesser prospects for obtaining more desirable positions or their lack of access to net- works that might steer them away from such jobs.
Leadership Effectiveness Our consideration of discrimination and organizational barriers raises the question of how women compare to men when they reach leadership positions in organizations. Are they effective leaders? We now review evidence based on these three different approaches. Such groups may be more successful than groups composed of individuals selected exclusively for their high ability because the best solutions to complex problems generally result from teams whose members apply different tools and abilities. The challenge is to leverage this potential by lessening the conflict, communication barriers, and lack of mutual respect that can develop in identity-diverse groups e.
Business organizations produce financial data that can serve as one measure of the association between effectiveness and diversity. In a more advanced U. Earlier U. For example a British study yielded no relation between board gender diversity and financial per- formance in the FTSE , the largest corporations in the United Kingdom.
Judge inspected these data and observed that, of the 10 companies with the highest percentage of women on their boards, six had underperformed relative to the mean performance of FTSE companies. In contrast, the five companies with the lowest percentage of women on their boards i. Instead, in a time of a general financial downturn, companies that appointed a woman actually experienced a marked increase in share price followed by a period of share price stability, although, in relative terms, the companies were still perform- ing poorly.
The studies further showed that companies that appointed a woman to their board had experienced poor performance in the months preceding the appointment. These studies reveal some of the complexities of assessing the effectiveness of women in exec- utive positions. Effectiveness of Individual Male and Female Leaders The second approach to assessing the effectiveness of female and male leaders entails a compari- son of their performance.
The studies included assessments of managers in organizational settings and, in a few instances, leaders of small laboratory groups. The male and female leaders who were compared held the same or generally comparable roles. These evaluations are not necessarily unbiased and may well be affected by prejudice against women leaders, especially in male-dominated settings.
However, because leaders cannot be effective unless others accept their leadership, these evaluations, however biased, serve as a relevant measure of how well an individual leads.
The findings of this meta-analysis suggest that the effectiveness of male and female leaders depends on the context in which they lead Eagly et al. However, women were found to be somewhat more effective than men in roles where women were more numerous e. The meta-analysis included additional data derived from a panel of judges assembled to give rat- ings of the leader roles.
Those data showed that women exceeded men in effectiveness in leader roles perceived as attractive to women and as requiring stereotypical feminine characteristics e. Men exceeded women in effective- ness in roles perceived as attractive to men and as requiring stereotypical masculine characteristics e. Overall, effectiveness tracked gender stereotyping quite closely. This meta-analysis also showed that female managers fared particularly well in effectiveness, relative to male managers, in middle-level leadership positions.
Taken together, these findings imply that women leaders in masculine settings are likely to encounter difficulties in gaining authority and feeling accepted and comfortable e. Eagly often have to contend with criticisms that they lack the toughness and competitiveness needed to succeed.
In such settings, it is difficult for women to build relationships and gain acceptance in influ- ential networks Timberlake, Given these hurdles, advancing in a highly male-dominated hierarchy requires a highly competent, strong, and persistent woman. For example, Black female managers who were interviewed in a survey believed that they were held to a higher standard than their White female colleagues, even when the credentials of the Black women were extraordinary. Research has confirmed that heterosexism, especially directed toward lesbians, is pronounced in work environments with male supervisors and primarily male work teams, especially when these teams are homogeneously White Ragins et al.
Due to the growing numbers of women in managerial positions, many people have wondered whether there is a leadership style that distinguishes female leaders from male leaders. Many academic writers have claimed that there are no differences in leadership style between women and men in the same leadership position e. In support of gender similarity, managerial roles surely suppress behavioral differences when men and women occupy the same role. Men and women are generally selected for roles by similar criteria, and they are under the same pressures to fulfill the tasks of the roles.
The evidence they offered was based on their impressions of the women they have surveyed or interviewed. In sup- port of their claims, gender roles do not disappear in employment settings—they continue to have some influence and, thereby, to some extent foster gender stereotypical behavior. Given the dou- ble bind cross-pressures from leadership roles and the feminine gender role, it is not surprising that female leaders report that finding an appropriate and effective leadership style is one of their greatest challenges.
The issues of leadership style are best resolved by meta-analyses, which take all of the rele- vant studies into account and integrate the results quantitatively.
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Two meta-analyses have compared the leadership styles of men and women who occupy the same or similar leadership roles. The findings did not con- firm the gender-stereotypic expectation that women lead in an interpersonally oriented style and men in a task-oriented style. However, this relatively small difference became especially small in more male-dominated leadership roles.
Without a critical mass of other women to affirm the legitimacy of a more collabora- tive, participative style, female leaders evidently tend to opt for whatever style is typical of their male colleagues. Given the double bind that we emphasized earlier, women no doubt are more readily accepted as leaders when they share power by being collaborative. Yet, a collaborative style is not necessarily better than a directive one.
Under some circumstances, democratic and participative styles are effective, and, under other circumstances, autocratic and directive styles are effective. The second meta-analysis included the more recently developed research literature on trans- formational and transactional leadership styles see Avolio, ; Bass, Transformational leaders state future goals, develop plans to achieve them, and innovate, even when their organization is generally successful.
They mentor and empower followers by encouraging them to develop their full potential. As this description of transformational leadership suggests, it is nei- ther masculine nor feminine when considered in its entirety but, instead, culturally androgynous. Yet another potential leadership style, labeled laissez- faire, involves a general failure to take responsibility for managing. A meta-analysis of 45 studies included all available research that had assessed leadership style according to the distinctions between transformational, transactional, and laissez-faire leadership Eagly et al.
Although these more negative and inef- fective styles were more common among men, they were relatively uncommon among leaders of both sexes. Given that men have greater access to leadership than women do, it is startling to find even these small meta-analytic differences showing that women obtained higher ratings than men did on the components of leadership style that relate positively to effectiveness and that men obtained higher ratings than women did on the transactional and laissez-faire styles, which do not enhance effectiveness.
The implications of these style findings for effectiveness were corroborated by the somewhat better performance of female managers than male managers on the effectiveness measures used in the studies included in the meta-analysis. At the intersection of gender and leadership, although empirical findings are limited, different cultural backgrounds can shape leadership styles along with gender.
In addition, female leaders of color, due to their dual marginality in countries where they are a minority, may be partic- ularly concerned about integrity and justice, especially related to the inclusion and fair treatment of diverse individuals. Although empirical evidence about the effectiveness of such aspects of leadership style is absent, these somewhat different leadership styles could produce advantages for several reasons.
One rea- son is that leaders from different backgrounds may be advantaged by their ability to modify and switch between minority and majority perspectives, depending on their immediate cultural con- text Molinsky, Women and men from racial, ethnic, and sexual minority groups generally have multicultural experience because they have learned to negotiate both minority and majority cultures.
In addition, it is plausible that diverse leaders perform especially well to the extent that they had to meet a higher standard to attain leadership roles in the first place see review by Biernat, The bottom line on leadership style and gender is that women and men in the same leadership position do differ, but not by very much. Many women do lead with behaviors that are tinged with culturally feminine qualities.
This shift reflects the greater complexity of modern organizations. A modern manager gains less from ordering others about and more from assembling a team of smart, motivated subordinates who together figure out how to solve problems. We have addressed the importance of the typically greater family responsibilities of women in slowing their rise in organi- zational hierarchies, explored the effects of prejudice and discrimination against women as leaders and potential leaders, and examined the effects of the structure and culture of organizations. These considerations together produce paths to leadership that are decidedly more labyrinthine for women than for men.
We further considered the different leadership journeys taken by women and men from diverse identity groups based on race, sexual orientation, ethnicity, and nationality. Our review of the literature on gender and leadership points to several valuable directions for future research. First, although research has shown that the organizational and cultural context of leadership is important, studies have so far focused on only a few aspects of context.
For exam- ple, studies of the glass cliff e. Also, Ely and Meyerson showed that establishing an organizational culture that is less masculine and that does not favor macho behaviors, even in masculine environments e. Because the power imbalance between men and women takes different forms depending on organizational, political, cultural, and historical cir- cumstances e.
Also, gender identity inter- sects with identities based on other group memberships such as race, ethnicity, nationality, and religion Bowleg, These varied, intersecting identities are marked by the power dispari- ties and status differences that accompany membership in various societal groups. Therefore, future researchers should attempt to attain a more comprehensive understanding of the simultaneous effects of different aspects of identity on leadership.
Third, most studies of gender and leadership are cross-sectional and, thereby, neglect the impor- tance of change over time. Also relatively unexplored are the changes that occur in the careers of men and women as they initially attain leadership roles and maintain themselves in them. Do the initial barriers and resistances that women often encounter erode over time as they earn legitimacy through good performance? Do women then have more freedom these days to dis- play authentic behaviors that express their identities as women, and does such freedom, if it exists, also allow racial, ethnic, and sexual minority leaders to express their identities?
Longitudinal studies could be conducted to explore the ways in which time and associated experiences shape expecta- tions toward leaders from groups traditionally excluded from leadership. In addition, developmental studies could focus on different life stages to reveal how aspirations for leadership are fostered in earlier life experiences in families, schools, and communities. Eagly Fourth, although scholarly discourse on leadership is typically presented as gender neutral, gender is implicit in the theories and concepts.
Leadership theories and concepts not only reflect existing organizational structures but also support and reproduce the existing order by shaping understanding of effective leadership. Researchers who draw on critical perspectives on leadership e. Such shifts in understanding could potentially affect the practice of leadership and, thereby, ease the now-difficult leadership journeys undertaken by women and people from other groups whose access to leadership opportunities are limited.
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The gender pay gap: Going, going. Blau, M. Grusky Eds. New York: Russell Sage Foundation. Bolino, M. Citizenship and impression management: Good soldiers or good actors? Academy of Management Review, 24, 82— Bowleg, L. Sex Roles, 59, — Bowen, C. Evaluating gender biases on actual job performance of real people: A meta-analysis. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 30, — Brackett, M. Relating emotional abilities to social functioning: A comparison of self-report and performance measures of emotional intelligence. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 91, — Social capital and organizational leadership.
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Gender and the emergence of leaders: A meta-analysis. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 60, — Role congruity theory of prejudice toward female leaders. Psychological Review, , — About Publish Join Sign In. Readers Benefits of registering Where are my ebooks? Ask it above. She began to write in her early teens and has never stopped since. English is her second language and yet a major part of her writing life. When Ana is not writing, she takes care of her cat, Lily, and loves to go to the movies. She has a passion for Asian movies, music and foreign cultures.
Will they get it on or will it be an epic fail? My Sister, My Brother She loves him so much, she plays along with his deepest and darkest fantasies. Donavan loves his step sister, Carolyn. She fires up all his desires and takes him to deeper, darker passions he had only dreamed of until now.
With names like Sugar Momma and Sweetarts, what more do you want? Come and have a taste of the sweetest girls around. Words: 10, Language: English. Lady Avila has a terrible secret. She self harms to cope with the abusive temperament of her sister and the indifference of her father. Rami, her sister's betrothed, reveals that he knows her secret. Avila is torn between keeping her distance for the sake of her sister, and accepting Rami's feelings.
What happens on Rami's wedding day will shatter everyone to pieces. Contains self harm. Words: 39, Miss Anton, the foster mother, goes to great length to keep it a secret from everyone and expects Angie to act like a young woman. However Charlene has a deep attraction to Angie and is determined to be with her even if Miss Anton has other plans for Angie. Words: 2, Catherine is caught masturbating to a porno by her step brother, and secret crush, Keith. What will happen when she can no longer avoid him? If he knew I was dreaming of having sex with him, would he approve or deny my sexual yearning?
Words: 3, Sherrie goes dancing with her friends. After a bad encounter with a drunken guy, she is rescued by a beautiful Asian woman named Yue. Will Sherrie and Yue become an item? Words: 24, Enjoy this guilty pleasure while you can! Teacher, Give It To Me! Words: 1, Teachers are hot and awesome to pleasure.
Want to watch? Do you have a naughty sweet tooth? Then the tasting is for you. Ever pick up a stranger at a bar? James has. Many times. Will this be his last pick up? Steal photocopies wherever possible and make books! Open source is the only source. We reject industrial, commercial models of literary production.
We have an anti-industrial complex. We prefer to ask forgiveness rather than permission. By place and time and context and the vastly textured skein of what it is to be a particular person in a particular place. There is no judgment that can encompass the discomfortable.
Discomfortable writing makes us uneasy and functions in un-easy ways. Discomfortable writing makes demands, posits imperatives. To think differently, it is imperative that we find different language s. Our work with language is necessarily slow, effortful, considered, non-accidental, and not automatic.
To work consistently in more than one language and between languages is slow and often awkward. To write something in one language and then take the time to translate it into another language means waiting, means collaborating, means multiple attempts. We believe in this slow process. Labor takes time and we believe in the time that it takes. Discomfortable time. We believe discomfortable language is its own form of activism or dis organizing—disorganizing the structures of institutionalized non-consensual domination and subservience that are embedded in the textures of our language.
Discomfortable writing enthusiastically undermines the dominant structures of English and the structures of English-language dominance. Discomfortable writing enables us to listen fluidly-not-fluidly to things we do not always attend: the scaffolding of the ways language functions to buttress ideology or silence dissent. We have asses, and we are willing to work them off.
We will be stubborn but not intransigent. We will be open to suggestion, persuasion, whim, and acceptance of the errors of our ways. We will look back and we will look forward. We are and we continue to be, without a clear break; we become complicit and resistant and insist on motion. We believe in interruption, stoppage, open-endedness. Nothing is over. Everything is over. We have barely begun. We are in the midst of the midst. Audre Lorde, Sister Outsider.
Freedom, CA: Crossing Press, When the state is unnatural and offers no perfection. When home to dumb animals and gods,. This is polishing security. A digital garrison. The gods live without each other, like wild animals. Sufficiency is only perfect in the moment of the state. A spoiled hand is no longer a hand but dinner, the hermit obscene before his rocks and papers. The state alone can be alone without horror or confusion. Zoo tray. The state contains our diversity of needs like a slipper, like a delphic knife.
In the produce aisle insufficiency gleams a wax skin must be dusted with water. Sufficiency is a cold perfection. First get a house and a wife and an ox to draw and the judiciary follows, cornfed in its balloon robes. The house is the original scene. She boxes up. The state is a container of duplication, conservator of the basic minimum. Our bodies bound to morter and decay. The property heart, waiting for use alongside a pop gun and a silk handkerchief eases the load on the ox hearts, their feelings an electrical discharge as they tow and hoist.
As we relax our pulse beats heavily on the sternum, where opening a crab shell would make its wettest sound. The element that can use its intelligence to look ahead is by nature ruler and by nature master. This is philosophy, self-canonized, televising projections since dawn. For alibi the philosopher-king appeals to the public fact of his chemical castration. With immortal cunning soul tyrannizes the body, the father bullies kin, intelligence tempers desire like a president kneeling on the senatorial neck. Except no president does, having made a reduction.
Kennelled by reason, a free body is erect and useless, suited for the life of a citizen, divided by war and peace. The slave body is of course. The use of slaves is not a form of knowledge that has any great importance or dignity. A morbid fat woman whipped us a little, but only with buckbrush and only around the ankles. It is diminutive and feminising, deteriorates the squires the house is the original scene of tyranny as prophylactic against female hunger. He is speaker of the house, house a pork barrel. How he acquires human properties is a skill for soldiers and hunters, raking it in the year of jubilee, taking dogs to the base of all trees, forcing runners into muddy shallows.
Slaves are tools made for action. Diptherial robotics, cogs in their hipbones and tightly wired phalanges nipping at bobbins. If shuttles could fly and a plucker play a tune all self-moved, then masters would have no needs and the cabins, empty, become national trust. Watch them dance to heaven like the tripods of Hephaestus shuffling into the assembly of the gods. However by nature you can and therefore do belong to him. You participate in reason so far as to recognize it but not so as to possess it, for possession is barred to you are possessed so thoroughly.
In the year of jubilee we will have transformation. Money that grows on bushes, squirrels and wild things, cotton for free and good calico, shoes lined with dog fur. Corn, rye and goober peas, mush and milk, pepper pot from the cook shack everyone down at the frolic and nothing partial such as sleep, warmth, or skins. The day bluelighted to an infirmary. Take myself off to conjure thoughts of dogs rioted up a tree in the dark and a silly rotten stick liquors up the other hand.
Fear is a powerful inducement to club up: clear the backs sentinelled, looking for freedom portioned and in regard of: every rut Ocado may be able to deliver. At the return of relief — all fields squarely — and the modern houses I apply at a gate shackled by a deliberate block. A paddock with deer, too docile and thick among nettles and rusting gear boiler pots and winches to make this place than mortal foreboding.
Eaters nearby, scanned by the rolling monocle that twitches its history of terror from only one side of a monumental face. No wilderness here, even for fodder coruscating inside their commodity hides their hips and shoulders move through ragout the muscleman is hiding his pointed ears in the long grass.
Everything I see is the state. More dogs. Their owners. Man is an animal who needs a master who is an animal who needs a master that is an animal needs that master who is a mastered animal, mastering the animal of his master who is animals and needing a master is an animal master for the animals who need a master and a master of animals is also an animal among animals who need masters there is an animal and masters for those animals are animals who need a master who need a master animal animal animal master animal. The duty to obey. And her nature restrains her litter at two, as otherwise she would have as many tits as a pig.
So quantity is a function of necessity, and for grundnorm take the tyranny of the family. The forest regards its infant oaks as luxuries, silva lisp a word for tender: the merciless criticism of everything existing. The thumb is just long enough to pleasure the mouth without choking. Still summer with bright gold appearances. Heavenly grasses. Occasional pinches. But not yet. Teapot hens puffy for dawn in Paradise Park, slappy,. An excess of luxury soap. The children. The house and its work. Where they came from. The electors of Holland dance to bronze music, spin the Victorian dynamo in the modified foodmart chocka with maize, decaf peace, prosperity.
This so Fed-Ex home town commo freeze the liquor licence with moral temperature: children cluster and spatter the streets with taffy goodbar, good in pastel sugar shades of salt water. They will always hear your footsteps, offering plausible deniability for food and aching corporatist bullyboy spirits for hush money in Kolleen Park, in Abu Nuwas.
Dominions either accustomed to live under a prince, or to live in freedom, the pin switch stay where you are with your hands. For when Christian men, take not their Christian Sovereign, for Gods Prophet; they must either take their owne Dreames, for the Prophecy they mean to bee governed by, and the tumor of their own hearts for the Spirit of God; or they must suffer themselves to bee lead by some strange prince. The prince.
Blackfaced to a jungle dark medlar swelling under the black peat of Camden and Currituck, this is the dark sticks river, gallons charged with forgetfulness and the memorandum of notification. The ghosted native swings on a palindrome, going oogedaboogeda from the loblolly bay. The digital natives check in characters, walk-ups with grudges whose intel can be checked by solidarios milites only at the hot point of a drifted metal.
Dyed with tannins, fringed with berries for the foraging mascot bears, the cloth stapler a reversible feedbag and containment unit for the pure fire of platonic eyes. On the MRE boxes of sassafrass and pin cherry stand two wet feet, the Peppa Pig water-wings slipped off far back in the pocosin stage. They unclamp the jinga trucks, lock and load arrears for policy as the oaks burn giant candles like heads with livid inflammatory hair. Milites ad adorem pacis peiora molintur quam in bello.
Friendlies cast with hundreds n thousands light the sky for relays. This fake city as diorama: anatomical displays showing the gestation of a mil-bird, from broken avionics and the works to berthing in foreign service, how we build a state from components of foreign manufacture. Teaching that there are three courses for those who wish to hold them: to ruin them, to reside with them, or to permit them to live under their own laws, drawing a tribute, and establishing within it an oligarchy which will keep it friendly to you.
Elsewhere airstrip and oceanliner for pirate practice remote-control kill authority is the real thing where the deer and the antelope play. The Praetorian Guard in the summer of 69 drew targets for an extraction plan by intrusive metal and intrusive thoughts, while others cashiered out and found themselves at loose ends their venomous expertise. That was a real ass-puckerer, the Anabasis of Xenophon, in a circle makes the red arc of an oil dash, is shot-put, is hockey-sticks in the comfortable lunge of the Black Bear.
Soapmakers and their sons for silver have been made into knights, sheep-dipped green badgers who align teams as they align stars. The warrior constellation winks his nakedness turns lithium and gibbets to flesh in a flash of an air asset, oh company dog. Our teams are not cooking meals or moving supplies. They are taking bullets. The prince, with little reluctance, takes the opportunity of rebellion to punish the delinquents, clear out the suspects, and to fortify himself in the weakest places, the strategic chokepoints.
You draw the shells in coloured pencils cascade with rain-sounds from their casing. This is the lethal finding, drawn down straight from the imperial grotto:. When duty-honour calculations are displaced by cost-profit and the benefit shifts like oversight to the executive, the acceptable face of pain gets masked up and booted up till the money literally soars. Jose Cuervo protecting the agave fields, Zapata engineering the ammo stores: they quadruple the army payout; the bouge et gages du court seductress, the outlivers have the correct figures but the kickers a life without security of finance, transport, interiors and health made into an error against life set to zero.
So the lobby in Holland is marked out for a private transport times event, tradecraft walls swicker and rupple to a fervent catacoustic grunge of election. Triple Canopy swooning full cash for incredulity, for burning the log-book and the model detonator. Outside, through the shifting of the garrison up and down all become acquainted with hardship as a kind of burning. Ramiro taken on pretence and executed on the piazza at Cesena: the people at once were satisfied and dismayed. The recipe includes only bad guys, cooling, stymied, deletable, good fortune and great energy are needed to hold them in a loving and deeply sexual embrace as proof of the muj strategy with passion fruit pudding ridge road.
Who leave out dog hits, we sniff the traces, slip up on nitrates and sink our dearly booted feet into the hacksaws to cut the switch. An own-goal, delivered in a handcart, she wakes up to the smell of premonition and her new heroic part. There is no uplift. This ilke worthy knight hadde been also Somtyme with the lord of Palatye Agayng another hethen in Turkye. And everemoore he hadde a sovereyn prys.
Raven 23 pins down in Nisour Square, drop tackle on a hard site, budgets rattle in the offertory. Figure 1: Piranesi, Giovanni Battista. Colonna Traiana, As anywhere in Rome, these networks of transit, commerce, and artifacts are layered as thickly above the streets as they are buried beneath them. Through this earth rich with aggregate imperial desires, Mussolini carved an axis connecting his Palazzo Venezia office and underground bunker with the Roman colosseum, revealing and dividing two sets of ancient cellular plazas, the Imperial Fora and the Republican Fora.
In the voids left by both Trajan and Mussolini, the bombast of imperial power feels equal in scale and determination. This material sense of the known vs. Map of Rome detail , This association with landscape connects the thick marble drum to the quarries of its origin in Carrara. More significantly, within this extensively documented city, the interiority of the column is not only literally hidden from view, but exists as a material lacuna in the consciousness of Romans and tourists alike. With the exception of the significant and much discussed act of stacking 20 drums of marble, each weighing 2 tons, the power and nuance of this monument is due to the successive removal and reduction of material—from the quarrying of the marble, to the voiding of the internal spiral stair, the carving of the 43 window apertures, and the chiseling of the bas-relief frieze.
While assembly seems to connect to location through desire or will, excavation is more rooted in material acceptance and exigency—embodying the readiness to work with that which is found rather than imposing that which is desired through the literal importation and assembly of disparate elements. What better way to connect the aspirations of the tower to the actuality of the earth albeit an earth originally miles away in Carrara , while its narrative describes the conquest of a landscape and people over a thousand miles away?
Like so many other archaeological spaces, the column offers a thick buffer against the harsh light and sound of the contemporary city, although here, rather than descending into the damp must of the historical dig, we instead spiral upward, simultaneously leaving the earth while becoming more aware of its cool, massive solidity. But the set of windows offers an experience quite different from the aerial one, as the column drum could be understood to operate as a thickened zoetrope, filtering out the gestalt of its context while assembling an animated coral-like aggregation of fragments, vignettes, and details.
Figure 4: Zoetrope views from within the column. Click to open GIF in separate window. Images: Michael J. Figure 5: Exterior view of window in the column. Image: Joshua G. As the embrasure expands each window aperture from exterior graphic rectangle to capacious wedge of interior space, the pattern of chisel marks highlighted by the oblique light raking across the stone surfaces creates a set of miniature mineral landscapes.
Images: Joshua G. Rome itself operates both as a center of fait accompli rational planning celebrated by historians and as a subterranean labyrinth of fluid potentiality. If the material of history could be used as a filter through which to reinterpret the current surrounding context, would our understanding of empire and territory shift? This intense interiority, focused more toward experience than governable dichotomies of inside or outside, might offer a simultaneity of idealized abstractions and specific material events. What made him consider that each of these photographs had to be in a one-to-one reproduction ratio in relation to its referent?
Did he try to zoom in on them but failed to successfully do so notwithstanding that according to the technical specs of his camera, he should have been able to do it? Whether he tried to or not, one cannot zoom in on such objects—thus they are auratic natural objects! Did he yield to the impulse? Is Lebanon bigger than one of these cm 2 zones that Hage photographed? I would term the referents of these Hage photos icons.
A line in my book What Were You Thinking? It is a monumental work of art that explodes from its center, evoking a feeling of deep time within a palpable present. Said to embody the entire history of art, beginning with the first bang of inspiration, the painting was originally called the The Death Rose , then The White Rose , and finally The Rose. With a passion equal to religious fanaticism, DeFeo threw herself into the creation of The Rose , transfiguring herself and her environment through the practice of making. More than just a final product, The Rose exemplifies a manner of creation.
The title came later. It was just a painting. All I knew about it was that it was going to have a center. The central locus of The Rose served not only to anchor the painting itself but also the activity around it. In photos taken by friends, The Rose even acts as a second presence, another figure in the room with its own depth and emotion. The painting itself is three dimensional and massive. It was built up over eight years through the continual application, removal, and reapplication of layers and layers of paint, until not only the canvas was completely covered, but areas of the walls and floors of the apartment as well.
A small yellow piece of company stationary, from the local paint shop from which DeFeo bought her industrial grade paint, estimated that DeFeo purchased over five thousand dollars worth of white paint alone. All of these are present in the The Rose. But unlike some of her other works, The Rose grounds itself in its strong center.
Like a photosensitive canvas for feelings, the painting captures the sentiment and history of DeFeo and the world around her, her own personal narrative becoming tangled up in the long history of the painting itself. The final iteration of The Rose is almost bulbous, as if the canvas is overburdened and needs to expunge some great desire or expression beyond the constraints of its surface, to push the envelope so to speak.
Despite its emotionally laden form, its representation was borne out of an almost technical act of creation: emotions and passions were applied, with the paint, to each successive layer simply through the passage of time connected to a daily practice of working on the canvas. More common however, are the discussions that highlight her personal struggles after the completion of The Rose, as she endeavored to find a museum to purchase the painting after its removal from her Fillmore Street apartment in San Francisco.