For example, the two lines w. In another these three passages appear in inverted order. Te Deum Laudamiis. The Psalm-verses are not all identical with those at the end of the Te Deuniy nor do those which are so stand in the same order. The Gloria in Excelsis itself is first closed with "Amen;" then follow our verses, 24, 25, 26 ; then the verse from the " Song of the Three Children," closed again with " Amen ; " and then five other Psalm-verses of like character with ours, but not the same.
It is upon this that Daniel chiefly, if not entirely, builds his decision in favour of an Oriental origin. The following is the group of verses attached to the Gloria in Excelsis, " Day by day will I give thanks unto Thee : and praise Thy Name for ever and ever " Ps. Amen " " Song of the Three Children ". Then follow seven Psalm-verses — cxix.
Field to be found therein. In the opening prayer of the liturgy of St. Jude v. And what is more likely than that, in their Latin dress, they followed in like manner the Te Deuniy which is traditionally known as a morning hymn, as we know they did follow the evening Psalm cxxxiv. May we not, then, distinguish at the end of ver. If we are right in this, we shall also find internal evidence for this distinction in transitions of thought and tone and style ; and so we do.
For let us first observe — that the former is all praise except the two last verses, the latter all prayer, except perhaps the verses 24, 25, and that the two verses of prayer at the close of the former are expressly connected with it by the word " therefore," and by the continuance of the pronouns "Te, Tuis, Tuis," whereas the following eight verses are as distinctly marked off from these by a fresh address, " O Lord Jehovah " see Ps.
So that those are addressed with the six verses before them explicitly to the Second Person ; while these are addressed generally to God ; and, further, let us realize the difference in general character between vv. The sudden and total cessation, at this point, of the emphatic pronouns, the manifest change of style, and the uncertainty of the selection and order of the verses below it, all seem to point to the same conclusion.
And, lastly, a custom, mentioned by Daniel as prevailing in some con- tinental churches, according to which the people kneel during the latter part of the hymn, throws additional weight into the scale on the same side, pointing, as it seems to do, to a tradition which told them that these verses had been once suffrages during which by rule or by instinct worshippers, having completed the hymn itself, would kneel for prayer.
See pp. The Practical Value of this Consideration. It must not be forgotten that the intelligent use of this canticle, and especially its true musical treatment, greatly depends on the right understanding of its several parts and their relation to each other, and that this renders the above considerations practical as well as interesting, and makes it important to trace them through the subordinate groups into which each of these two main divisions of praise and prayer will be found to fall, especially the former.
It would have seemed, indeed, unnecessary to point out, so obvious is it, that of the great act of praise w. But we meet, in musical compositions for this hymn, with so many conflicting and strange dividings and subdi- vidings, in the interest probably of musical variety, that it is evident that musicians at least have failed to comprehend or to obey the sequence of thought ; and of these one or two have been popularly accepted, and one at least has the support of authorities such as it would be disrespectful to ignore. Misled by the untrustworthy punctuation of our Prayer- book, some divide ver.
They have thought that ver. It seems indeed to me somewhat fanciful to suppose a creed, in any definite or formal sense, in the middle of a hymn ; and if by " creed " is meant merely a recitation of the great facts on which our faith rests, not as a " symbolum " or profession before men, but directly addressed as an act of worship to God, then it seems to me that instead ox dividing off the word " acknowledge" confitetur in ver. I would add that the previous occurrence of this word " acknowledge " confitemur in precisely the same connection with "praise " laudamus in ver.
Those who would see a creed in w. This meets both difficulties, besides being, I Te Deum Laudamus. And if objection be raised to the changes which this involves, from the worship of the Blessed Trinity to the worship of the Son alone at ver. If, moreover, all this first part of the hymn were an address to the Second Person only, we should have to explain the unlikely, though not impossible, application to Him of the attribute " Everlasting Father " Isa.
Another common mistake is that of separating ver. Cf Ps. Probably the verbal parallelism in the English pronouns, " We believe " and " We therefore pray " of w. But it will be seen that it does not exist in the original. The two lines, 18, 19, are without doubt to be taken together as one verse, or verse and response — the last of those which set forth the work of Redemption ; and the two next lines, 20, 21, are no less certainly one, completing the 1 6 Te Deum Laudamus.
Te Deum proper, and summing up its acts of praise with an act of prayer expressly referring to them ; while w. When we pass from the composition, character, and use of the hymn to its poetic form, we are met with a peculiarity more curious than any yet mentioned, distinguishing it, not indeed from the other canticles, but from every other hymn whatever of Western origin.
Should, then, the change of music precede these two verses, and carry them over to this section in spite of their true connection with the other? I do not like to say yes ; but we cannot forget that for us the Te Deum is the whole twenty-nine verses as they stand, whatever may be the history of their composition, and we must make the best of it, make it shall we say? My view of the history of the second section rather tends to depreciate its direct Christian force ; would it restore something of this, if we connect it musically with those two previous verses of distinctly Christian prayer?
Possibly it might. For in this also the Te Deum is singular ; that being thus antiphonal like all the Gospel canticles and the Psalms, it is perversely so printed as to destroy its true responsiveness and make it unlike all its fellows in this respect. Every verse, as it is usually printed, whether in Latin or English, is really only ' a half verse containing but one complete sentence, which is really the parallel to the preceding or following verse, as the case may be ; but having been thus taken as a whole verse it has then been cut by a colon, or " point," into two often grammarless and meaningless quarters to serve as versicle and response.
Each two verses as printed not reckoning vv. Ambrose and Augustine recite it by alternate lines at the baptism of the latter. A few chance verses here and there in the Psalter, and the second and third verses of both Magnificat and Nunc Dimittis are isolated instances of this same mistake ; and, most unfortunate of all, the Gloria Patri, which is evidently one verse only, of C 1 8 Te Deum Laudamus. Our present pointing rests on no traceable authority.
See note, p. This antiphonal structure is that of almost all Oriental poetry, the exceptions, in form rather than in principle, being a few songs with recurring refrains like Ps. This fact, however, is another which has escaped the apprehension of musicia'ns and choir-masters, lay and clerical, if we may judge by the way in which they treat our canticles in services and even in chanting ; it is hardly too much to say that they sometimes seem to regard the words as having no arrangement of their own, but rather as so much raw material to be worked up in various combinations to suit the supposed demands of musical effect.
It is amusing or distressing, according as one looks at it, to observe the free way in which uncon- sciously they distribute in "services" the several verses or hemistichs of a canticle between the two sides of the choir, Decani and Cantoris ; so that it is really hard to find any two of their " services " agreeing together in this respect, or to suppose that they have ever asked themselves what was the meaning of a double choir and of the point or colon. Musicians, indeed, in this particular matter are not alone to blame; they in their craft are only ignoring what ecclesiastics, more inexcusably, must have failed to see and follow in their public recitation of the Psalms, and this for now so long a period that, except where the Psalms and Canticles are chanted, a restoration of true antiphonal use seems hopeless.
Yet for one party to utter, as is now the custom, a complete and independent verse of two or more clauses, and for another to utter in turn another like independent verse, connected with the same 20 Te Deum Laudamus. And so, too, for one party to sing a complete and perfectly cadenced melody like a chant, and for another then to sing the same again by way of reply, is not antiphony, but repetition.
Nevertheless, into this absurdity have we drifted.
Antiphony, like rhyme, consists in contrasted likeness, not identity, or equality. And between the first half of a chant and the second, as between the two halves of a Psalm-verse, there is true antiphony — there is likeness, relation, and contrast. It is, in fact, parallel to the ordinary colloquial intonation of question and answer respectively, where the questioner sustains or even raises his voice to the end, so that the suspense produced thereby induces a craving for an answer, and the answer when it comes satisfies both ear and mind, and ends with a fall of the voice, completing the cadence with the idea.
I would, however, urge the consideration of this question, not merely as a matter of interest, nor simply as a theory, but as one of very direct practical importance in producing, as I know by experience, more brightness, because more intelligence and appreciation, on the part of those who join in it. It has indeed been objected by Dr. Jebb that the parallelisms of the Hebrew poetry are much wider and more complicated than can be exhibited in distichs ; to which I reply that it is quite true that there is such a wide and complex system of parallels, but that there coexists therewith an inner system of distichic parallelism, and as it is impossible that the larger system can be musically rendered in ordinary practice, it is right, certainly not wrong, to fall back on the smaller divisions.
Moreover, his argument proves too much, for it would be destructive Te Deunt Laudamus.
Retrieved June 29, from Encyclopedia. The title Laus angelica is found in a MS. John, Volume One, Rev. Unigenitus, which is rare in Latin creeds, occurs in that of Cyprian of Toulon. Choir i, O all ye works of the Lord, bless ye the Lord : R. The work abounds in examples of word painting, most strikingly at 'the sharpness of death' bars where the added sharp accidentals originally notated as F , G and C provide visual as well as aural colouring.
And it is satisfactory to be able to claim the authority, against both this view and the common alternation of whole verses, of Professor Delitzch, probably the greatest living authority on Hebrew literature and customs, who says : " It is the original and most appropriate mode, that antiphonal song should alternate, not according to the verses, as at the present day in the Romish and English Church, but ac- cording to the two members of the verse ; " and this is in fact acknowledged implicitly by our English Church in the only places where she has shown her mind — in those occasional versicles and responses which are taken from the Psalms ; and perhaps in the statement on the title- page of the Prayer-book that the Psalms themselves are "pointed as they are to be sung or said ; " for points not mere stops can affect saying in no other way.
Compare also I Sam. This mode has been used from time immemorial at Christ Church Cathe- dral, Oxford, and from more recent date at York Minster, at some choral festivals, and in a few churches. In Mendelssohn's letters from Rome, , he describes this mode of chanting as used in the Pope's chapel, and mentions that Bunsen had adopted it thence in the Ger- man Evangelical chapel there English Translation, vol. Application of this Principle. It remains now to show how this principle affects the several verses of the Te Deum, bringing out, as it does, naturally the true poetical structure and sense.
It will enable the reader more easily to follow this if he keeps before him the parallel columns on p. The first two whole verses the first four as usually reckoned consist of three members each, as is clear by the Latin — chanting will otherwise at first impair the effect of the true, i For organists — They should make a break between the two halves of the chant, and not, as now, endeavour to run the music smoothly and continuously through from the mediation to the reciting note of the response.
This is natural, excusable, and even commendable under the common whole-veisQ and half-cYvoix misarrange- ment, for it serves to conceal the wrong by making the two strains as little like two as may be, and as little unfit as possible for one side only of the choir. I can, indeed, well understand a musician rejecting this hint, on the ground that the harmonies are always constructed to lead smoothly over this point of section. But then I should say, if the harmonies of a chant sin against the true law of chanting, they are either as some would venture to assert altogether out of place in chants, or their demands are misunderstood or overrated and inadmissible.
It is also recommended, as a help to the congregation who are accustomed to read from left to right, that the Decani side of the choir should be the north and the Cantoris the south, as at Ely cathedral and many other places. The grand and illuminative effect of antiphonal chanting is never realized where the two sides of the choir alone, which are rarely more than six or eight feet apart, follow it.
See also a note to this page at the end. Te Deum laudamus ; i. Te iEternum Patrem omnis terra veneratur. Tibi omnes Angeli, Tibi coeli et universae potestates : 4. Tibi Cherubim et Seraphim, incessabili voce pro- clamant. This then might appear to militate against the theory of pairing or parallelism ; but it does not ; for a very large number of verses in the Psalms of which this theory is held to be universally true are so formed, the freedom of this kind of poetry admitting two members or sentences in either half of a verse to one in the other.
The error of the old division of each verse into two, and these again each into two hemistichs, is shown by its cutting the third sentence in each " Te eternum," etc. And a like absurdity is produced by the common pointing in every verse from the sixth to the tenth inclusive, in the twelfth, fifteenth, sixteenth, seventeenth, twenty-fourth, and twenty-sixth, supposing, as I always do, the alternation of sides by half chants and half verses, that is, by single whole musical phrases and single whole sentences.
This is plainly antiphonal see Isaiah vi. In these verses the antiphonal responsiveness is very marked and beautiful. It is a case of contrasted or antithetic parallelism. This is recognized in the following paraphrase, from a beautiful old meditation on the Te Deum of the fifteenth century, printed at length by Mr. Thomson, which thus interprets these verses, "As al these joyethe before Thee Here we come to the one manifest exception, not accidental, but induced by the nature of the case, to the regular antiphony.
This interruption, however, may be in practice fairly evaded, and the correspondences of the succeeding verses restored, by the priest, when the canticle is simply recited, taking the two first lines of the three as one, the people answering with the third ; so that he recommences rightly with " Thou art the King of Glory, O Christ.
All that is necessary is to ignore the colons, and put each two verses together, except the last two, each of which is, I think, complete in itself It should be noticed that in the ordinary simple recita- tion of the canticle by priest and people alternately without music, the true pairing of the verses is maintained for the first ten verses, and would be throughout if it were not disarranged by the intervention of this triplet. It will be naturally asked by any who have taken the trouble to read what has been said above, whether the con- siderations which I have advanced about the Te Deutn do not in some degree touch also the other canticles or any of them ; and I propose to devote a few lines to satisfying this inquiry.
It will be remembered that the points to which I have drawn attention are : i origin or authorship, a question which touches the Te Deutn alone ; 2 formal structure, poetical, rhythmical, or metrical, as we please to call it, and the consequent manner of singing ; 3 division into para- graphs of changing thought, and the accordant changes of music ; 4 casual points of literary interest in the words or phrases of the original or of the English version ; to these will have to be added presently a fifth, which did not arise with respect to the Te Deum, Form, and Manner of Singing.
As regards form — it has been already stated that the antiphonal or amcebean distich or tristich is the all but universal " ground form " of the Psalms, and therefore, of course, of all those three canticles. The single exception is Benedicite, omnia opera, which needs a form of music and singing to suit it, somewhat different from ordinary chanting. Like Psalm cxxxvi.
There is, however, very ancient authority in the old Salisbury use, for rendering the Benedicite antiphonal, and adapted to ordinary chants, and at the same time relieving it of what to many persons seems a trying monotony. The full refrain is only appointed to be sung in those three verses i, i8, 27 which open a fresh paragraph, and in the final verse.
The other verses are coupled together in pairs as verse and response without the refrain, thus : — I. Benedicite aquae omnes quae super ccelos sunt Domino : Benedicite omnes virtutes Domini Domino. It should be noticed that the three verses lO, ii, 12 of Psalm cxxxv. I have ventured, in the following reprints of the Canticles, to give, as an alternative, a form of the Benedicite which, taking its cue from this ancient use, goes slightly beyond it in one direction and stops short of it in another, dropping out " Benedicite Domino," as well as the refrain, from all the intermediate verses, but replacing both at the close of every four lines.
Tone viii. Him for ev-er. Verses 3, 7, 11, 15, 20, 24, O ye Heavens r Verses 4, 8, 12, 16, 21, 25, Verses 5, 9, 13, 17, 22, 26, For the other verses, see pp. In our VenitCy ver. The three songs of Zacharias, The Blessed Virgin, and The Other Canticles, 35 Simeon, though coming down to us in Greek, were, it is impossible to doubt, originally uttered and recorded in Hebrew or Aramaic, and in the responsive form.
The structure of the first of the three, the Benedictus, is somewhat obscured in the Greek. Bishop Jebb, in his " Sacred Literature," has a very interesting chapter upon the structure of this song, and offers a very ingenious solu- tion of its complicated grammatical transitions, suggesting that it was composed for a double chorus, the several strophes of which have become interlaced in transcription. It so happens, however, that these grammatical changes do not betray themselves in the English version, and for our purpose may be ignored, the sense running on without any obvious interruption.
But the responsiveness fails in our version at the sixth and seventh verses ; and these also may be taken as one : " To perform the oath which He sware to our forefather Abraham : even that He would give grant to us that we being delivered out of the hand of our enemies, might serve Him without fear. Altogether this canticle, though sufficiently antiphonal to make it certain that it had that form origi- nally, affords, especially in the Greek, less certain indications than the others of the true parallelism of the lines.
The Nunc Dimittis requires also its one correction, which, as in all the previous cases, consists in rejoining the wrongly separated halves of one verse. This canticle really has but three full verses : 1. Lastly, the pointing of the Gloria Patri, as it stands in the Prayer-book, must submit to be condemned with the rest and for the same reason.
This doxology is but one whole verse, and there should be no points or colons dividing each half of it into two. There is no antiphony between the name of the Holy Spirit and those of the Father and the Son ; but there is antiphony between an ascription of glory to the Holy Trinity, and the corroborative or intensive reply that such was and is and ever shall be to all eternity ascribed. The OtJier Canticles. The Prayer-book itself acknowledges this by expressly calling the second whole line the " answer " to the first in those places where this doxology occurs alone.
The Athanasian Creed is sometimes called the Psalm Quicunque vult, and is always pointed for chanting, as if it were antiphonal in structure ; but if it be so at all — and it is certainly not so throughout — it has been wrongly pointed in exactly the same way as the Te Deum, and needs the same coupling of each two verses in one to set it right; except w. Perhaps they might be recited in monotone, the Gloria Patri taking up the chant again at the close.
Let me repeat here — lest the reader should be astonished and even indignant at the boldness of a proposal to in- fringe even thus sparingly upon the patent royal, so to say, of the sealed copies of our Prayer-book, by shifting the "points" — that there is no hand of known authority to which the present punctuation can be traced ; it is not improbable that under pressure of graver questions it was left very much to the copyist or printers' sagacity.
The recognition which it may claim from the title-page, need be held to go no further than the general principle, and in the letter it does not touch the Canticles. See note at the end. If the reader should be disposed to regard the method of chanting by half verses, and even the slight corrections of our received pointing to accord with it, as impracticable, both as regards the execution of it by choirs, and the 38 The Other Canticles.
Changes of Thought and of Music in Accord- ance Therewith. As with the Te Deuniy so with all the other Canticles and as Dr. Westcott has shown in his excellent little " Paragraph Psalter " with all the Psalms, a very great, and to some persons indispensable, assistance to the under- standing and application of the whole is to be sought in resolving it into its component parts or paragraphs, and inserting at the beginning of each a brief heading or key to its intention or direction of thought, and, I may add, to the appropriate changes of music.
I have, therefore, adopted this plan in a reprint at the end of this paper of the Invitatory Psalm, and the eight Canticles, not in every case falling in with Dr. Westcott's divisions, which I had not seen when I worked out my own, but much pleased at finding them so often coincide with his. I have taken advantage of this occasion of printing them at length, to exhibit also to the eye the true response form of each verse, and the true manner of chanting between the two sides of the choir, printing the verses, each as a verse or versicle and response, and where necessary, as shown above, venturing to correct the erroneous pointing of the Prayer-book — herein again following the example of Dr.
Westcott in his Psalter — though with perhaps a little of that greater boldness which is allowable to one who claims no authority. The Other Canticles. That question which was most prominent in our dis- cussion of the Te Deum, and which there stood first — the question of origin or authorship — has here no place at all ; but on the other hand the very knowledge, certain and definite, which we have of the occasion, motive, and authorship of the three Evangelical hymns, gives rise in their case to another question which never arose with respect to the Te Deum, The question divides itself into two parts.
First, In what sense are they responsories to the lessons? Secondly, In what sense are they to be adapted to our own personal and Christian use? In Psalms of a period a thousand years more distant from that fulfilment, this witness to the faithfulness of God to His word is naturally less distinct; but even in the Jubilate, the most general act of praise among them, it is heard in the final words, " His truth endureth from genera- tion to generation ; " which, we should observe, is the key- word of that grand Psalm, the Ixxxixth, with which the Church welcomes at Christmas the Incarnation as the fulfilment of God's promise to David.
The Cantate Domino is more explicit — it opens with an expression, " a new song," which has been well understood here and elsewhere by Christians in the sense of a song with a new light thrown upon it by the Incarnation, and a new meaning given thereby to such phrases as — "The Lord declared Heb. But by far the more difficult part of our question remains to be answered ; for the general application of these canticles to their appointed use as responsories is easy and plain compared with the determination of the sense in which some passages are to be by each of us appropriated as personal and Christian acts of worship.
This difficulty also did not present itself to us in the Te Deum, That hymn was written in the full light of the dispensation under which we live, written, as we may say, by one of ourselves, by one occupying our own standpoint, and written for the direct and immediate purpose of being used by us, and used in common and public worship. Furthermore, it speaks, and we speak in its words, of great truths already manifested in facts, and concerning us all equally.
The very absence of any knowledge of the circumstances or character of its author, helps to make its words more unreservedly our own. Neither does this diffi- culty arise in our use of the Psalm canticles, which are all of them simple and direct addresses to God or to our fellow-worshippers. And the Benedicite is only less simple than these by the indirectness of its address "through nature up to nature's God ; " for if this call to inanimate and irrational creatures to bless and praise their Creator does 42 The Other Canticles.
We have to transport ourselves into their times and surroundings, or we have to adapt their words to our position ; to exercise a faculty, not, probably, very common, of mental assimilation. The difficulty of doing this is not seldom felt by worshippers ; and if possibly it should seem worse than unprofitable to call attention to it, because it may disturb the satisfaction of some with our services ; it will, I venture to think, work no harm except to those whose past unthinking use of them has done them no good ; while to many the raising and meeting the ques- tion will be a wholesome stimulant and greater eventual satisfaction.
This difficulty then, which I know to beset some persons in their attempt to use as their own these venerable hymns, is confined to those of the Blessed Virgin and Simeon and Zacharias. Now we shall easily see that we conceive of them in one of two aspects, or perhaps we accept both or either, according to the bent of our own minds. First, they may be taken as not being really direct acts of worship at all, but as of the nature of anthems sung for us and appro- priated by us only so far as we acknowledge them, so to say, by acclamation, when we join in the Gloria and Amen at their close.
This view certainly sets us free from all perplexity ; but It is certainly not the view generally believed to have been held by those who introduced them into our public worship. Each worshipper is to utter as in some sense his own the words and thoughts of the Jewish priest, the everblessed Virgin of Galilee, and the aged frequenter of the daily Temple worship, although, besides the difference of their position, they each of them, while giving thanks for a mercy common to all men, refer to favours specially vouch- safed to them only, at least in the primary and natural sense of their words.
The question for us is, How shall we adapt — not ourselves to their words or position, which is impossible — but their personal expressions to our per- sonal feelings and circumstances? Of the three hymns, the Song of the Blessed Virgin is the hardest thus to appropriate, because of the absolutely and sublimely unique position of her whose utterance it is. If, it seems to me, I am to try and use her hymn as my own, it can only be by realizing, which few are taught to do, that in her my nature, my humanity, in its " low estate " through sin, has been "regarded" by God and accepted by Him as the "handmaid" of His loving purpose in the Incarnation — has been "highly favoured," for that now "the Lord is with it," Emmanuel.
I am aware that usually the Blessed Virgin is taken as representing the Church, and the Church as speaking in her, and we in the Church ; and this has such high authority that I hesitate in suggesting that, even if 44 The Other Canticles. The Song of Zacharias presents throughout its greater part no difficulty to those who can but think of themselves as children raised up unto Abraham in his seed which is Christ. But in the ninth verse, " And thou. Child, shall be called," etc. Here we are forced back into the times and circumstances of Zacha- rias as he addresses his new-born child.
Doubtless we too can apostrophize the infant Baptist as one who " shall be " for ever " called the Prophet of the Highest ; " but how to say, with any reality, now, " Thou shait go before the face of the Lord to prepare His ways," I know not, and have often wished for a more satisfactory solution than I find in smothering my sense of incongruity. It passes away, how- ever, with this one line. The Song of Simeon, though in its origin and its expres- sion it is as much the utterance of a personal experience as the other two, and refers directly to his own approaching death and the happy realization of his own inspired hopes, calls for very little effort of the imagination to any thoughtful spirit, seeing that death is not far from the youngest, and that it has been made bright to us, as to him, by the salvation of God within sight and reach of all.
The immediate purpose of these notes is now satisfied ; but it cannot have escaped the reader that this question of The Other Canticles. Certainly many, not much less than half of the Psalms, are very hard to adapt to our- selves ; and many of them can scarcely have been meant for general use even in their own day.
I cannot deny that oftentimes I have looked at a mixed congregation during the recitation of the Psalms, and doubted whether the pious determination of our Reformers that none should be omitted, was not too high-pitched for simple folk and babes in Christ. It is well, indeed, to appeal, as to a lofty standard of devotion, to the custom of those " ages of faith " when men were found to recite the whole Psalter daily or weekly ; but these were the devout and " religious " who had attained the faculty of ready mystical interpretation and adaptation, and who are represented in our day, if at all, by the few regular attendants at daily prayers, and not by our ordinary Sunday congregations.
It is curious that while on the one hand the Psalms are great favourites for private reading and meditation even among the less well educated, it is not an uncommon thing to find those who have not been used to our Church worship, or who have abandoned it for something else, pointing to the Psalms as the stumbling- block. Certainly no community outside the Church has ever thought of following us in the indiscriminate use of them all, and the American Church has appointed, for Sundays at least, a selection which may be used at dis- cretion.
The principle of selection is that of all old services books, even of the Breviary, where the Psalms are used so copiously. Westcott's Psalter, but with the headings more suited to poor people and to those of slow thought, and accepting without his scholarly scruples our old English translation as their basis, would go far to facilitate the intelligent use of the Psalms and Canticles. Note to pp, 18 and yj on our present Pointing, When it is said that no authority can be found for our present pointing in the Prayer-book, this is not to say that there is no formal authority for its use, for this is of course to be found in the title-page as a part of the Act of Uniformity.
What is lacking is moral authority for its correctness. This we might seek in two directions. We might look for some evidence that one or more scholars of recognized repute in the study of Hebrew poetry had taken any part in its execution. But we have no testimony to such special knowledge in Coverdale or other translators of the Bible of , which 'our Prayer-book version follows. The sign of musical pointing in the Latin Psalters was and is still an asterisk.
We cannot show, then, that the Psalms of , or our Psalter which follows it, were consciously pointed for music at all. But neither can we prove that it was not ; and it may be asked. How otherwise can we account for its being so nearly correct for musical recitation? Simply by the fact that the gram- matical, which in Hebrew poetry is the musical, division is so obvious, that it was rarely possible to avoid inserting the stops colons correctly ; while on the other hand the occasional mistakes, some of them quite obvious, are sufficient to show that the general correctness was not the result of conscious care, except perhaps to the extent of seeing that each verse was divided into two parts, somewhere, to suit the bipartite character of the ancient chant.
The other sort of authority that might be looked for is the pointing of pre- existing ancient Psalters. But here too we fail. In the first place the old Sarum Psalter, taken from the Old Gallican a. The Vulgate, which at least in some editions attempts by means of figures and paragraphs to combine two modes of division of verses, does not help us. Nor does our own pointing agree with any of these preceding it, nor, it may be added, with the verse-division or the punctuation of the English Bible which succeeded it in 1.
Nor can we be surprised at these discrepancies ; The Other Canticles. Instances of this occur in our English Psalter, as in Psa. Our last appeal would naturally lie to the primary authority of the Hebrew Psalter, but to what purpose? Its punctuation, which comes to us only from the later synagogue, is itself no infallible authority. Learned men differ both as to its correctness, and authenticity, and as to the relative value of its many complex signs of punctuation, and still further as to the extent to which they represent musical signs at all, and are not merely elocutionary accents.
But, most conclusive of all for our purpose, it does not as a matter of fact afford any favourable testimony to the correctness of any of the Christian versions. Note to p.
While the advocates of the one rest their case on popularity, and those of the other on facility of execution, or the one on musical theory, the other on sentiments of devotion, or while the one is commended as in keeping with the progress of musical art, and the other, with equal reason, as in keeping with the style and tone of the words ancient Oriental chants with ancient Eastern Psahns , or the one despised as the effort of an undeveloped age, the other as the fancy of a degenerate one, — the true test seems to lie in the question — Which best satisfies the original conception of a chant?
The chant simply represents the responsive recitation of the Psalm by two presumably equal bodies of singers, equal, that is, in an average pitch or register of voice. The reciting note is the essential and primary element of the chant, the varied mediation and cadence representing merely the final modulations as in ordinary question and answer, and the natural necessity for relief from bare monotone.
Now, as a matter of fact, all the ancient chants have it so. The double chant stands further condemned on a yet more serious charge, for it is almost incompatible with the antiphony of the words. There are, indeed, a very few Psalms in which it is possible to trace throughout a certain responsiveness between consecutive pairs of whole verses, but even in these the antiphony of the several half- verses is far the most distinct ; so that the only way to be true to the words while using a double chant would be still to divide each verse between Decani and Cantoris, and not, as is now done, each chant of four strains ; in other words, to treat the music as two alternate single chants combined.
Note to Venite, v. Popham, M. And The Canticles, printed as they are on the following pages, are issued separately for use by choirs and congregations, price td, Rivingtons, Xiondon.
It was not until the foregoing pages were in print that I had the advantage of seeing an article on the 72? It would have been therefore more correct to render the line, " Thou, when for his deliver- ance Thou would'st take upon Thee man, didst not disdain a virgin's womb. Jerome was occupied upon the Vulgate, the phrase fell out of favour and was superseded by others, such as "adsumere humanitatem.
Deum, or, as I would rather say, for the first section of it, an early date, anterior, it would seem, to the circulation of the Vulgate ; and, secondly, it has led me to notice some other passages or words in the h m[in capable of affording a like comparison with other documents of varying dates, and of throwing light, not only upon the age and origin of the Te Deum as a whole, but also upon that difference in these respects which seems to me to exist between the two sections of the hymn.
There are three such passages in the first section, and two in the second. Of the former we have already seen that two in vv. The third is the Song of the Cherubim in w.
It will be found that it is with the fuller form of these latter that it agrees, and most exactly with the Mozarabic, in which alone we find the word "majesty " inserted. When, however, we turn to the only two instances in the second section which afford any opportunity of comparison with more than one document, we see a clearer indication of age, and of an age subsequent to the reception of St. Jerome's revisions, which we know in the case of the Psalter was tardy and partial. I am indebted to the marginal readings to the Psalter in "Blunt's Annotated Prayer-book " for the discovery that in these five Psalm- verses, which 48 b Postscript.
Jerome's later revisions, viz. In both these cases it is the later y not the earlier, version that is followed in this section of our hymn! Otherwise, while the rubrics prescribe no special colour, violet is forbidden in processions of thanksgiving pro gratiarum actione , green is inappropriate for such solemn occasions, red though permissible would not suggest itself, unless some such feast as Pentecost, for example, should call for it. White, therefore, or gold, which is considered its equivalent, is thus left as the most suitable colour.
The choir and congregation sing the hymn standing, even when the Blessed Sacrament is exposed, but kneel during the verse "Te ergo quaesumus The official and typical melody is now given in the Vatican Gradual in the Appendix pro gratiarum actione in two forms, the tonus solemnis in which every verse begins with preparatory or intoning notes and juxta morem romanum in which the verse begins ex abrupto.
Pothier notes a strong affinity between the melodies of the "Te Deum laudamus," "te dominum confitemur" and those of the Preface, "Per omnia Sursum corda. While the chant melody has been frequently used as a canto fermo for polyphonic Masses, the polyphonic settings are few compared with many hymns of less prominence. Italian composers of the seventeenth century made settings for several choirs with organ and orchestra. Cherubini's manuscript setting is lost. Berlioz considered the finale of his own setting for two choirs, orchestra, and organ "undoubtedly his finest work.
The Latin text has been translated into English and has received many settings in that form. Handel's "Utrecht" and "Dettingen" Te Deums are famous. The dialogue feature between meane soloist and chorus bars also occurs in the Gloria Patri of both evening canticles as well as in the parallel section of the composer's First Service [published by Cathedral Press: CP6]. Weelkes set the Te Deum text in five of his ten services. In three, a 'plainsong' intonation to the words 'We praise Thee, 0 God' precedes the setting proper; the most familiar intonation, already in use as early as the s, is derived from Sarum plaincbant.
In the remaining two services, including the 'Fourth', the opening words are incorporated in the setting itself, as indicated by word cues in their organ parts. The voice parts in bars of the present edition draw on the traditional intonation. The work abounds in examples of word painting, most strikingly at 'the sharpness of death' bars where the added sharp accidentals originally notated as F , G and C provide visual as well as aural colouring. The remarkable 'dominant' final cadence also at bars , recalling, perhaps unexpectedly, similar cadential treatment by John Sheppard 8 , occurs here uniquely in Weelkes's music.