grupoavigase.com/includes/399/6118-amistad-con-travestis.php On the musical training of Athenian citizens: K. Dobrov ed. Metapoetical: E. Henderson considers , the hetaira interpretation unlikely. Zimmermann , 40, M. See Dobrov and Urios-Aparisi , — Trendall, ed. Bosher, Cambridge , — On the relationship of vase to theatre-production, see J. Earlier in the same vein: B. Slater, ed. Csapo and M. Csapo ; Taplin Csapo , is a fresh and detailed survey of the entire question with earlier bibliography and several interesting new hypotheses. Arguing or accepting that some, at least, of the South Italian comic scenes point to Greek comedies are with no pretence to exhaustiveness : Trendall , ; Green , 55, Green , ; Taplin , 30—54, 89—90; H.
Pugliese Carratelli, Milan , , ; Dearden , —46; A. See also: E. Csapo and W. It is still debated. Revermann , Taplin , 42; NP s. Phrynis; Storey , ; Csapo , Trendall writes RVP 64 and , that the Asteas vase reflects a comic version of the punishment of Phrynis by the Spartan ephor Ecprepes, who cut the extra strings off the lyre, reducing them to seven.
For the anecdote: Plut.
Passage of the squadron - - ib. Geld verdienen und iPhone X gewinnen. In another royal order arrived at Manilla for the expulsion of the Chinese, but it fell to the ground. Even less understanding was shown in Mailing's treatment of other native institutions. And nothing I cared, at my sky blue trades, that time allows.
Agis The same anecdote is told of Timotheus Plut. De inst. Another version without mention of the punished musician says that the Argives established a fine for kithara-players using more than seven strings: Ps. De mus. In detail, see Storey , , who gives references for all the themes mentioned briefly here. The fragments. On the latter question, see the survey of Storey , —21, and Storey , , note 5 with earlier bibliography. On the basic conceit of the play and the reconstruction of the plot, see Storey , and Revermann , —69 with earlier bibliography.
The idea of a return from the Underworld appears in a Phrnyichus fragment fr. Zimmermann , See in general A. Motifs that connect the biographical or anecdotal traditions relating to particular tragic and comic poets to Sicily and Magna Graecia: i the given poet lived and was active in Sicily or South Italy as well as Athens, or came from the West to live in Athens; ii after successes in Athens he travelled to the West for one reason or another, where he again enjoyed success with patrons and audiences. Recent discussions: Csapo , 85—87; 95—99; cf.
Hugoniot, F. Hurlet, and S. Milanezi, Tours , 56, 66—68; Taplin , 6—9; Walsh , , n. In other words, the Italic inhabitants of Apulia took only what they wanted from Greek culture and transformed it into something new that was uniquely their own. Ultimately, the message is that we should approach Apulian red-figure vases on their own terms.
Herring and K. Lomas, London ; K. Lomas ed. The Cambridge Ancient History, vol. Lewis et al. Whitehouse and J. Champion, London , — Tsetskhladze, Leiden and Boston , — On the name Posidonia-Paestum Paistano see Wonder , Dunbabin, The Western Greeks. On Greek subjects, see Wonder , 42 with further bibl. On the Sicilian background of the Paestan workshop, see A. Marconi, Leiden and Boston , ; Wonder , 43; Hughes , See Wonder , 45— A similar analysis with slightly different emphasis: Wonder 52, cf. Hughes , —83 finds it unlikely that the travelling companies who found an enthusiastic paying audience for their productions along the Greek-speaking South-Italian littoral would have made such a lengthy detour to the north, or that the local Lucanian elites, however peaceful their co-existence with the local Greek population, would have supported Greek cultural events and festivals.
And since he thinks it impossible that his theatrical scenes were drawn after imported models, it seems to him most likely that Asteas brought the theatre, as a theme. Contra: Robinson , —06; Csapo , , note and below. On travelling theatrical companies, see Dearden , , —46; Taplin, On the three broad categories of mask-representation, see J.
See Green , Carpenter , 34 makes a statistical argument: of the 78 vases with comic scenes listed by Trendall, only 5 of the 19 kraters with known provenance come from Tarentum and the rest from Apulia, with 8 from Italic settlements—the balance in favour of the hinterland speaks for the Italic reception of Greek drama. Simon , On the specificity or particularity of comic scenes, see Taplin , In analysing the relationship of image and theatrical performance, one must distinguish between comedy and tragedy.
Just as tragedy does not or very rarely does reflect on its own character as theatre, so the vase that consciously refers to a tragic performance does not, as a rule, foreground the theatrical context. Tragedy does not break the dramatic illusion; the vase-painter does not break the mythological illusion. Taplin , On metatheatrical aspects of Greek drama, see G. The wooden stage is often visible; sometimes with stairs or a step-ladder; cf. Green , — See Carpenter and ; Robinson and Taplin 21; on the interest in Greek threatre among Italic elites in Apulia, see esp.
Beim Budapester Schlachtsarkophag handelt es sich um einen Kasten, der an der Vorderseite mit einem aufwendigen Schlachtfries verziert ist. Die Nebenseiten und die zweite Langseite sind mit Reliefs verziert, die im sogleich folgenden Hauptteil des Beitrages behandelt werden.
Zuvor soll noch ein Blick in den Sarkophagkasten selbst geworfen werden Abb. Dieses zeigt in der Mitte innerhalb eines leicht erhabenen, fein bearbeiteten Randes eine nach vorn offene Kreisform, die die Position des Kopfes des in der Grablege Bestatteten markiert. Die Ausarbeitung der Reliefs, die in. Hier wurden auf den Nebenseiten also in eine einst. Hinzu kommt zur imposanten Gesamtwirkung der Ausfallschritt nach vorn. Die Angriffsaktion freilich hat keinen direkten Gegner.
Sein Pferd sprengt nach rechts, folgt mit dem Kopf aber der Kampfrichtung seines Reiters. Die hier vorhandenen Kampfmotive sind von antiken Schlachtsarkophagen8 gut bekannt. Dieser Gefallene erinnert sehr stark an die tote Amazone, die etwa in der Mitte des genannten s. Noch genauer kopiert diese Figur die gefallene Amazone auf dem Sarkophag im vatikanischen Belvedere Abb. Bei diesen sterbenden Galliern sind jeweils Details der Vorbilder auf Amazonen-Sarkophagen leicht variiert, z.
Vielmehr ist die nachantike Produktion von Sarkophagreliefs anhand von weiteren. Somit sind ihre Front- und Nebenseiten nach entstanden. Von drei Marmorsarkophagen in der Huntington-Stiftung in Pasadena wurde bislang nur einer publiziert. Im Vergleich mit den Nebenseiten des Budapester Sarkophages treten die motivischen Gemeinsamkeiten bis in Details sogleich klar vor Augen, nur geringe Variationen — ein zentrales Gorgoneion beim einen oder zwei statt einer Lanze beim anderen — sind zu beobachten. Auch hier treten einige der bekannten Motivgruppen auf, die wir von der Sarkophagfront im Capitolinischen Museum kennen;.
Dies kann wegen der Bekanntheit des vatikanischen Vorbildes seit dem Fehler in dem flachen, bisweilen Scherenschnitt-artig gearbeiteten Reliefzyklus Abb. An den Schmalseiten Abb. All diese Motive sind in der vorliegenden Form ohne antike Parallele. Vielmehr kann man es auch bei Grablegen mit anderer Motivik nachweisen. An den Nebenseiten Abb. Department of Antiquities. Handbook of the Permanent Exhibition, Budapest , — Wir danken D. Koch — H.
Sapelli, in A. Giuliano Hrsg. Le sculture I 3, Rom , 81 f. III 13 mit Abb. Arias — E. Cristani — E. Auf den Metopen des Rundmausoleums des L. Munatius Plancus in Gaeta findet man z. Moretti — D. Tardy Hrsg. Polito, Fregi dorici e monumenti funerari, in M. Valenti Hrsg. I mausolei romani, tra commemorazione funebre e propaganda celebritiva, Atti del convegno di studi Monte Porzio Catone, Tuscolana 3 Rom , 23—34 mit Abb. Koch—Sichtermann a. Rom, Mus. Krierer, Sieg und Niederlage. Kistler, Funktionalisierte Keltenbilder. La Rocca — C. Parisi Presicce, Musei Capitolini 1.
Le sculture del Palazzo Nuovo, Mailand , — Nr. O Anm. Toronto, Royal Ontario Museum Inv. Vatikan, Belvedere, Inv. Dazu s. Andreae a. Blackie, Combattimento di Romani e Barbari. Ramage Ithaca; Atnally Conlin Boulder; Atnally Conlin in ihrem Gutachten, das diese drei Seiten als unfertig charakterisiert. Bromberg teilt uns brieflich 3. Zum Motiv des Greifen auf antiken Sarkophagen s. Doheny zur Person s. Schon im Fittschen, Gnomon 44 , Mertens — E. Milleker — C. Lightfoot — S. Wir danken den Museumskuratoren Dr.
Eik Kahng und Dr. Calza Hrsg. Amor und Psyche: Calza a. Arias — Cristani — Gabba a. Musso in: Giuliano a. Zanker — B. Ewald, Mit Mythen leben. Jahrhundert, Berlin , — Nr. Heute in Madrid, Prado, Inv. Kunze — J. Maier Allende Hrsg. Among the small group of prints ascribed to Titian by Adam Bartsch, Landscape with a Horseman and his Groom has been the focus of interest for several decades fig.
Refuting the unconvincing attribution to Marco Angolo del Moro proposed by Maria Catelli Isola,2 Gianvittorio Dillon associated the work with the manner of Battista Franco on the basis of its similarity to the background landscape elements of his Moses Drawing Water from the Rock fig. In fact, the overall effect of the Budapest print is more virtuoso; its lines are free and delicate, and the forms are articulated in a sketchy and spontaneous manner.
In contrast to the springy vitality of the Budapest impression, the etched lines of the Bartsch version are more restrained, generally uniform in width and value, the hatching is more regular, the handling of the needle less skilled, and, last but not least, several details are confusing. These defects become plainly evident if one observes the small boat on the horizon, between the two tree trunks on the left of the Budapest print, which vanishes among the less defined lines of the Bartsch version.
It can generally be said that the Bartsch version is more simple and direct in its technique, which suggests the hand of a less talented printmaker. This is particularly evident in the buildings of the background, the articulation of the foliage and the ripples of the stream. The etcher of the Bartsch version does not make a distinction between the lower part of the sky and the far end of the stream. All these characteristics strongly suggest that the Bartsch version must be the later one, while the Budapest print represents the original invention.
The Budapest print, unpublished until today, is the only known impression of this version, and therefore has considerable importance. It is very plausible that the Bartsch version was traced onto. This hypothesis is mainly supported by its reverse direction, and also by that its outlines are identical with those of the Budapest version but the execution of the details is notably different.
The uniqueness of the etching is further proven by the fact that later printed and drawn copies were made exclusively after the Bartsch version. Only a small sketch of Alpine farm buildings with a wooden tower, drawn by Titian in two autograph versions around —, may be directly linked with the background of Landscape with a Horseman and his Groom fig.
Campagnola was the most inventive mediator of the Venetian pastoral landscape, whose variations in drawings and woodcuts strongly influenced the next generation of printmakers in mid-sixteenth-century Veneto. Battista Franco, for instance, regularly inserted Venetian landscape elements in his prints during his final years in Venice, ca. Franco was primarily an engraver, but late in his career he preferred to use a mixed technique, combining the advantages of both etching and engraving, like many of his colleagues in the Veneto: Battista Pittoni, Angiolo Falconetto, Giovanni Battista Fontana, as well as Battista Angolo del Moro and his son Marco.
First, he etched the composition broadly onto the plate, carefully completing the figures and other important elements with a burin afterwards, but leaving the landscape in pure etching. It is also convincingly suggested that many of his few pure etchings are intermediary proofs which remained unfinished. In the mids anonymous etchers, often unconvincingly identified as either Battista Angolo del Moro or his son Marco, eagerly reproduced drawings by Titian. Catelli Isola ed. XVI al sec. Bartsch XVI. Mason Rinaldi ed.
Zerner ed. A pen-and-ink drawing in the British Museum, London inv. See note 4. It is important to note, however, that the impression at The Metropolitan Museum does not bear these letters. Some works have already been displayed at exhibitions in Hungary as well as abroad;1 however, they have never been shown as a unit. Later purchases added another fifty-four 18th-century Italian drawings to the collection, augmented by further twenty-three sheets from bequests and donations.
This total of seventy-seven Moreover, for financial and political reasons it was impossible to purchase from foreign art dealers for about half a century, following World War II. In light of the above, the purchase from the London art market in , adding four important sheets to the 18th-century Italian collection, can be regarded as ground-breaking. On the same occasion, the Museum purchased three Bolognese drawings: a beautiful compositional sketch by Gaetano Gandolfi — and another by his brother Ubaldo Gandolfi — ,7 as well as a compositional drawing with Susanna and the Elders8 by Antonio Gionima — ; all of them have filled a gap in the collection.
One of the Hungarian owners of drawings from whom the Museum purchased 18th-century Italian drawings or received such as donations9 during the 20th century is Simon Meller, a former museum expert. A compositional sketch in pen by Luigi Sabatelli. Most of our 18th-century Italian drawings, namely some one hundred and twenty sheets, are by Venetian artists, while the second largest unit comprises one hundred and fifteen works by Roman masters.
It is to the credit of the collectors that this proportion well reflects the importance and role of these two art centres in 18th-century Italy. A smaller group, with fewer than fifty sheets, consists of works from Bologna, whose leading role in the Seicento somewhat faded during the Settecento. We have thirty-five Neapolitan drawings, while sixteen works can be regarded as Northern Italian, and thirteen as Tuscan. Almost twenty sheets will probably have to be reclassified under German or Austrian schools. In addition, more than seventy drawings are awaiting closer identification and for the time being are kept with anonymous works.
The proportions of this section of the collection in respect to typical subject-matter confirm that new themes appeared in this period as compared to the 17th century. The number of townscapes, architectural capriccios and stage designs increased, and allegories and literary illustrations also occur in greater numbers.
Major Essay - - Term Paper (Advanced seminar) - History - Australia, Oceania - Publish your bachelor's or master's thesis, dissertation, term paper or essay. Seminar paper from the year in the subject History - Australia, Oceania, grade: A, La Trobe University Melbourne (Faculty of Humanities and Social.
Works with biblical and mythological subjects continued to be popular, and studies of heads and figures, as well as landscapes are also frequently found. Similarly to the Italian drawings of the 17th century, a point of interest pertaining to the 18th-century Italian collection is the presence of series and large ensembles of works by one artist. A notable, recently-discovered artist is Giuseppe Cades — , a master of Roman Neo-Classicism, by whom we identified a series of thirteen sheets. Giuntotardi produced attractive mementos of ancient Roman. As one of the most prominent early 18th-century members of the Maratta circle in Rome, Masucci combined Late Baroque Classicism with Rococo elements.
A great many. From among the Venetian drawings a large ensemble of sixteen sheets are attributed to Gaspare Diziani — , a brilliant draughtsman, and thirteen pieces can be regarded as the works of the noted graphic artists Pietro Antonio Novelli — and his son Francesco Novelli — Thirteen sheets by Giovanni Battista Tiepolo and his son Domenico Tiepolo, counted among the greatest painters and draughtsmen of 18th-century Venice, are held as the proudest possessions of the collection.
Another outstanding group is constituted by the fifteen theatre sets by the members of the Bibiena family and their workshop, internationally active as stage designers and theatre architects. Some further Neapolitan drawings stand out as interesting rarities for certain aspects.
A drawing by Giuseppe Sanmartino The Budapest collection preserves a remarkable sketch for a sculpture fig. The robe in the drawing is simpler than the richly folded drapery of the sculpted work. A significant difference is that the drawing represents the sculpture in a niche, while the finished work is placed freely on the right of the. Elio Catello has recently regarded the Saint Paul as a work jointly executed by Cosimo Fanzago and Giuseppe Sanmartino, based on the document quoted in note It is unknown to what extent Sanmartino altered the design of the abandoned sculpture; additional information may be gained from the Budapest sketch in which the light effects are subtly rendered.
The high quality of the execution and the idea of placing the sculpture in a niche also support the hypothesis that our drawing is not a copy after the finished sculpture. It bears multiple signatures by the artist and is dated figs. These drawings by Schepers, hailing from the Netherlands, document his activity as a decorative artist and designer.
They were donated to the Museum of Fine Arts by Endre Csatkai, curator of the Museum of Sopron in , and have not yet been published. According to the scant information we have on Schepers,30 he was originally a chemist and initially worked as a goldsmith in the Neapolitan royal mint. Later he was involved in the establishment of the famous Capodimonte porcelain factory. Charles de Bourbon, also known as Charles VII, king of Naples — , set up the porcelain factory in the Neapolitan Royal Palace and later in the Capodimonte royal park together with his wife, Maria Amalia, daughter of the princeelector of Saxony and king of Poland.
These included plates, vases, small and large bowls, tea and coffee cups, jugs, teapots, and porcelain figurines which were adorned with flowers, fruit, landscapes, animals as well as mythological, battle and genre scenes painted by specialists. Livio Schepers worked in the factory in the first years of its operation, and according to the evidence of their dating it is from this period that the Budapest drawings originate. This also proves that at this time Livio was no longer engaged in composing the hard-paste, which officially had been entrusted to his son Gaetano,32 but rather in design.
The composition with Diana and Actaeon set in an octagonal frame was planned for a silver tray or a porcelain lid, while the other drawing of two objects was clearly made for porcelain items. The stand of the chocolate cup33 is richly decorated with Rococo leaves, as well as with human and animal heads, while the bowl is adorned by oriental fish scale patterns inside.
Information on his life is sorely lacking too; we are not even aware of his birth place and date, only the particulars of his death: he died in Naples on 16 August The thus far unpublished design originates from the bequest of the Viennese painter and restorer, Stephan Delhaes, referred to in the introduction.
Sicuro began his career as an engraver. In , he produced a series of twenty-one veduta prints of Messina,35 which proved to be important visual documents since soon after their execution the city was almost completely destroyed by an earthquake. Thanks to his knowledge of chemistry, the architect, who also followed a military career, served as sottodirettore in the Neapolitan royal porcelain manufactory. The Capodimonte Museum and private collections preserve some Empire style vessels by him. The exedra was lined by bottegas, a row of shops, and the second pair of wings widening out on both sides housed flats.
According to the inscription,38 this was the first version of the design made for the king of Naples, which was later slightly modified. From the 13th century until the fall of the Neapolitan Republic in , executions were carried out on this square. All that remains of the Settecento rebuilding are the two fountain-obelisks and the Church of Santa Croce. The spectacularly spacious effect attests the influence of etchings by Giambattista Piranesi that made a deep impact on many other late 18th-century architectural designs.
This inspiration is manifest in the application of the exaggerated perspective providing monumentality to the square. To enliven the scene, Sicuro peopled it with large crowds; coaches, traders and bystanders, and these smallscale figures also served to emphasize the large proportions of the square. A drawing by Domenico Guarino A sheet kept with 18th-century anonymous Italian drawings is attributed here to Domenico Guarino Naples, — Naples, , and deserves attention also because of its special iconography fig.
Many similar depictions can be found in Neapolitan 17th-century art; for example a drawing by Belisario Corenzio — after in the collection of drawings at the Statens Museum for Kunst, Copenhagen,. Domenico Guarino is a lesser-known, minor painter of 18th-century. Naples, mentioned in sources as a pupil of Paolo de Matteis and Luca Giordano. Of his few surviving works, two signed and dated oil paintings are today in a private collection; they were put up for auction by Finarte in Milan in The Trinitas Terrestris theme does not appear in any of the surviving paintings by the artist, however, it cannot be ruled out that the Budapest sketch was made for a painting mentioned in sources as a Holy Family, once adorning the later destroyed Church of San Nicola alla Dogana in Naples.
In any case, the Budapest drawing may have been executed around the time of the dated paintings auctioned at Finarte; around DoMenico guarino, saint Michael anD a guarDian angel, n a p l e s , p r i vat e c o l l e c t i o n. Review about the Bologna exhibition and the identification of the preparatory drawing executed for one of the exhibited paintings.
Leonardo to Van Gogh. Master Drawings from Budapest, ed. Gerszi, exh. Author of the Italian Baroque entries. The catalogue was published in a supplemented new edition by Corvina Publisher in in English, and by Karinthy Publisher in Hungarian and in English, n. New attributions, and the analysis of the career of this previously lesser known artist. Disegni di artisti bolognesi nel Museo delle Belle Arti di Budapest, exh. The history of the Budapest drawings by Bolognese artists, and the discussion of 83 drawings in the catalogue entries, with new attributions.
Italienische Barockzeichnungen, Budapest and Hanau o. Book about selected Italian Baroque drawings of the Museum of Fine Arts, with an introduction relating to the history of the drawings and the 17th—18th-century Italian regional schools, as well as an analysis of 64 examples. Study on 18th-century Bolognese landscape drawing and print in relation to three newly discovered landscape artists. New attributions of 16 drawings, preserved in various collections.
Itinerario veneto. Natale, exh. Garas, Zs. Dobos, A. Author of the catalogue entries of the drawings, with new attributions. Disegni del barocco italiano. Introduction about Italian Baroque drawing and list of exhibited works, including new attributions. Master Drawings 31, no. New attributions of three drawings by Ubaldo and one by Gaetano Gandolfi. Von Raffael bis Tiepolo. Attribution of two previously anonymous drawings made for a painting and an etching by Carlevarijs. I Bibiena. Una famiglia europea, exh.
Lenzi and J. Bentini, Bologna, Pinacoteca Nazionale , nos. Catalogue entries on the Budapest loans. The Turn of the Century European Prints and Drawings, ed. Gonda , exh. Introductory essays and list of exhibited works. Scritti in onore di Marco Chiarini, M. Chappell and M. Di Giampaolo and S. Padovani, Florence , — Identification of the master and theme of a previously anonymous drawing in Budapest.
Capriccio in Time and Space. Giandomenico Tiepolo. Introductory essay and list of 86 works: drawings, etchings and paintings from the collection of the Museum of Fine Arts, and one picture from a private collection. Budapest , — A newly attributed drawing by Creti, in connection with his painting. Nicolas II. Un prince hongrois collectionneur, ed. Starcky, exh.
Starcky et al. Catalogue entries on the Italian drawings.
New attribution of a previously anonymous drawing in Budapest. Identifying the master and theme of a Budapest drawing and the analysis of the impact exerted by theatrical performances. Treasures from Budapest. European Masterpieces from Leonardo to Schiele, ed. Ekserdjian, exh. London, Royal Academy of Arts , cat. Discussion of six 18th-century Italian drawings. Mraz and G. Biographies from the History of Hungarian Museum Affairs], eds. Viga, et al. Purchased at a Philips auction in London, on 9 June , lot , as a work by an unknown Italian painter. Provenance: Sachsen collection, Weimar.
Museum of Fine Arts, inv. July , lot 15, Museum of Fine Arts inv. The sources for the following information are the inventory books, catalogue cards and archives of the Museum of Fine Arts, Budapest. Literature: V. Hoffmann, Budapest, Museum of Fine Arts , no. Literature: Budapest , no. No watermark. Provenance: unknown, inv. Spinosa et al.
Catello , In any case, the new attribution should still be confirmed by stylistic comparison, for which we shall see other preparatory drawings for sculptures by the artist—for which we have not had the opportunity yet. Unfortunately, the recent monograph see note 24 on the artist reproduces only a single detail of a drawing preserved in a private collection p.
It was executed in , i. This drawing is also difficult to reproduce as the writing on the verso shows through, see: A. Adiuto Putignani, Taranto , , note Livio Schepers, r. Design for two porcelain objects: a chocolate cup and a bowl, v. Design for an octagonal plate or lid: Diana and Acteon, r. Provenance: donated in by Endre Csatkai, curator of the Museum of Sopron; inv. Thieme and F. See S. In the opinion of Gabriella Balla, head of the Department of Ceramic and Glass works of the Budapest Museum of Decorative Arts, it is a design for a chocolate cup, while the composition of Diana and Actaeon was probably intended for a lid.
I would like to express my gratitude for her help. Provenance: Stephan Delhaes Lugt , see note 5 , inv. Domenico Guarino, r. Fragment of a sketch and a fragment of writing, r. Neapolitan Drawings, exh. Fisher and J. Meyer, Copenhagen, Statens Museum for Kunst , no. I failed at the time to discover what these other authorities were,-De Quincey having had a habit of secretiveness in such matters; but since then an incidental reference of his own, in his Homer and the Homeridce see ante, Vol.
VI, p. The author from whom he chiefly drew such of his materials as were not supplied by the French edition of Kien Long's narrative, was, it appears from that reference, the German traveller Benjamin Bergmann, whose Nomadische Streifereien unter den Kalmiiken in den Jahren und came forth from a Riga press, in four parts or volumes, in The book consists of a series of letters written by Bergmann from different places during his residence among the Tartars, with interjected essays or dissertations of an independent kind on subjects relating to the Tartars,-one of these occupying pages, and entitled Versuch zur Geschichte der Kalmiikenftucht von der TVolga " Essay on the History of the Flight of the Kalmucks from the Volga".
Moris, Membre de la Socidtd Asiatique. Both works are now very scarce; but, having seen copies of both the only copies, I think, in Edinburgh, and possibly the very copies which De Quincey used , I have no doubt left that it was Bergmann's Essay of that supplied De Quincey with the facts, names, and hints he needed for filling up that outline-sketch of the history of the great Tartar Transmigration of which was already accessible for him in the Narrative of the Chinese Emperor Kien Long, and in other Chinese State Papers, as these had been published in translation in by the French Jesuit missionaries.
At the same time, no doubt is left that he passed the composite material freely and boldly through his own imagination, on the principle that here was a theme of such unusual literary capabilities that it was a pity it should be left in the pages of ordinary historiographic summary or record, inasmuch as it would. Accordingly, he takes liberties with his authorities, deviating from them now and then, and even once or twice introducing incidents not reconcilable with either of them, if not irreconcilable also with historical and geographical possibility.
Hence one may doubt sometimes whether what one is reading is to be regarded as history or as invention. On that point I can but repeat words I have already used:-" As it is, we are bound to be thankful. In quest of a literary theme, De Quincey was arrested some"how by that extraordinary transmigration of a Kalmuck horde across the face of Asia in which had also "struck Gibbon; he inserted his hands into the vague chaos "of Asiatic inconceivability enshrouding the transaction; "and he tore out the connected and tolerably conceivable "story which we now read.
There is no such vivid version "of any such historical episode in all Gibbon, and possibly nothing truer essentially, after all, to the substance of the "facts as they actually happened. Dinner ccena was the only meal which the Romans as a nation took. It was no accident, but arose out of their whole social economy. This I shall endeavour to show by running through the history of a Roman day. Ridentem dicere verum quid vetat?
And the course of this review will expose one or two important truths in ancient political economy, which have been too much overlooked. With the lark it was that the Roman rose. Not that the earliest lark rises so early in Latium as the earliest lark in England-that is, during summer; but then, on the other hand, neither does it ever rise so late. The Roman citizen was stirring with the dawn-which, allowing for the shorter longest-day and longer shortest-day of Rome, you may call about four in summer, about seven in winter.
Why did he do this? Because he went to bed at a very early hour. But why did he do that? By backing in this way, we shall surely back into the very well of truth: always, where it is possible, let us have the pourquoi of the pourquoi. The Roman went to bed early for two remarkable reasons.
III of his Collected Writings, under the present title, and with only the slightest verbal changes, such as the substitution of "I" and "my" for "we" and "our" when he speaks in his own person. That was one reason-a reason suggested by the understanding. But there was a second reason, far more remarkable; and this was a reason suggested by a blind necessity.
It is an important fact that this planet on which we live, this little industrious earth of ours, has developed her wealth by slow stages of increase. She was far from being the rich little globe in Coesar's days that she is at present. The earth in our days is incalculably richer, as a whole, than in the time of Charlemagne; and at that time she was richer, by many a million of acres, than in the era of Augustus. In that Augustan era we descry a clear belt of cultivation, averaging perhaps six hundred miles in depth, running in a ring-fence about the Mediterranean.
This belt, and no more, was in decent cultivation. Beyond that belt, there was only a wild Indian cultivation; generally not so much. At present, what a difference! We have that very belt, but much richer, all things considered, cequatis cequandis, than in the Roman era, and much beside. The reader must not look to single cases, as that of Egypt or other parts of Africa, but take the whole collectively. On that scheme of valuation, we have the old Roman belt, the circum -Mediterranean girdle, not much tarnished, and we have all the rest of Europe to boot. Such being the case, the Earth, being as a whole in that Pagan era so incomparably poorer, could not in the Pagan era support the expense of maintaining great empires in cold latitudes.
Her purse would not reach that cost. Wherever she undertook in those early ages to rear man in great abundance, it must be where nature would consent to work in partnership with herself; where warmth 1 " Inprocinct":-Milton's translation somewhere in the "Paradise Lost" of the technical phrase "in procinctu. Lost, vi. Nature, in those days of infancy, must come forward liberally, and take a number of shares in every new joint-stock concern, before it could move. Man, therefore, went to bed early in those ages, simply because his worthy mother earth could not afford him candles.
She, good old lady or good young lady, for geologists know not 1 whether she is in that stage of her progress which corresponds to grey hairs, or to infancy, or to "a certain age" -she, good lady, would certainly have shuddered to hear any of her nations asking for candles. What will the wretches want next? Seneca, even in his own luxurious period, called those men " lucifuge," and by other ugly names, who lived chiefly by candle-light.
None but rich and luxurious men,-nay, even amongst these, none but idlers,-did live or could live by candle-light. An immense majority of men in Rome never lighted a candle, unless sometimes in the early dawn. And this custom of Rome was the custom also of all nations that lived round the great lake of the Mediterranean. In Athens, Egypt, Palestine, Asia Minor, everywhere, the ancients went to bed, like good boys, from seven to nine o'clock. But, as to the planet, as to our little earth, instead of arguing dotage, six thousand years may have scarcely carried her beyond babyhood.
Some people think she is cutting her first teeth; some think her in her teens. But, seriously, it is a very interesting problem. Do the sixty centuries of our earth imply youth, maturity, or dotage? The Roman, therefore, who saw no joke in sitting round a table in the dark, went off to bed as the darkness began. Everybody did so. Old Numa Pompilius himself was obliged to trundle off in the dusk. Tarquinius might be a very superb fellow; but I doubt whether he ever saw a farthing rushlight. And, though it may be thought that plots and conspiracies would flourish in such a city of darkness, it is to be considered that the conspirators themselves had no more candles than honest men: both parties were in the dark.
Being up, then, and stirring not long after the lark, what mischief did the Roman go about first? Now-a-days he would have taken a pipe or a cigar. But, alas for the ignorance of the poor heathen creatures! In this point, I must tax our mother Earth with being really too stingy. In the case of the candles I approve of her parsimony. Much mischief is brewed by candle-light. But it was coming it too strong to allow no tobacco. Many a wild fellow in Rome, your Gracchi, Syllas, Catilines, would not have played " h- and Tommy" in the way they did if they could have soothed their angry stomachs with a cigar: a pipe has intercepted many an evil scheme.
But the thing is past helping now. At Rome you must do as "they does" at Rome. So, after shaving supposing the age of the Barbati to be past , what is the first business that our Roman will undertake? Forty to one he is a poor man, born to look upwards to his fellowmen, and not to look down upon anybody but slaves. He goes, therefore, to the palace of some grandee, some topsawyer of the senatorian order.
This great man, for all his greatness, has turned out even sooner than himself. For he candles; and, I may add, fire. The five heads of human expenditure are-1, Food; 2, Shelter; 3, Clothing; 4, Fuel; 5. All were pitched on a lower scale in the Pagan era; and the two last were almost banished from ancient housekeeping. What a great relief this must have been to our good mother the Earth! She could not even afford them water, unless they would come and fetch it themselves out of a common tank or cistern.
But surely, the reader may think, this poor man he might keep waiting. No, he might not; for, though poor, being a citizen, the man is a gentleman. That was the consequence of keeping slaves. Wherever there is a class of slaves, he that enjoys the jus suffragii no matter how poor is a gentleman.
The true Latin word for a gentleman is ingenuus,-a freeman and the son of a freeman. Yet even here there were distinctions. Under the Emperors, the courtiers were divided into two classes: with respect to the superior class, it was said of the sovereignthat he saw them " videbat " ; with respect to the otherthat he was seen " videbatur ". And this usage derived itself mark that well! The aulic spirit was propagated by the Empire, but from a Republican root.
Having paid his court, you will suppose that our friend comes home to breakfast. Not at all: no such discovery as "breakfast" had then been made: breakfast was not invented for many centuries after that. I have always admired, and always shall admire, as the very best of all human stories, Charles Lamb's account of roast-pork, and its traditional origin in China. Ching Ping, it seems, had suffered his father's house to be burned down: the outhouses were burned along with the house; and in one of these the 1 " The mane salutantes":-There can be no doubt that the levees of modern princes and ministers have been inherited from this ancient usage of Rome: one which belonged to Rome Republican, as well as Rome Imperial.
The fiction in our modern practice is that we wait upon the lever, or rising of the prince. In France, at one era, this fiction was realised: the courtiers did really attend the king's dressing. And, as to the queen, even up to the Revolution, Marie Antoinette gave audience at her toilette. Memorable were the- results for all future China and future civilisation.
Ping, who like all China beside had hitherto eaten his pig raw, now for the first time tasted it in a state of torrefaction. Of course he made his peace with his father by a part tradition says a leg of the new dish. The father was so astounded with the discovery that he burned his house down once a-year for the sake of coming at an annual banquet of roast pig. A curious prying sort of fellow, one Chang Pang, got to know of this.
He also burned down a house with a pig in it, and had his eyes opened. The secret was ill kept; the discovery spread; many great conversions were made; houses were blazing in every part of the Celestial Empire. The insurance offices took the matter up. One Chong Pong, detected in the very act of shutting up a pig in his drawingroom, and then firing a train, was indicted on a charge of arson. The chief justice of Peking, on that occasion, requested an officer of the court to hand him up a piece of the roast pig, the corpus delicti: pure curiosity it was, liberal curiosity, that led him to taste; but within two days after, it was observed, says Lamb, that his lordship's town-house was on fire.
In short, all China apostatised to the new faith; and it was not until some centuries had passed that a man of prodigious genius arose-viz. Chung Pung-who established the second era in the history of roast pig by showing that it could be had without burning down a house. No such genius had yet arisen in Rome. Breakfast was not suspected. No prophecy, no type of breakfast, had been published. In fact, it took as much time and research to arrive at that great discovery as at the Copernican system. True it is, reader, that you have heard of such a word as jentaculum; and your dictionary translates that old heathen word by the Christian word breakfast.
But dictionaries are dull deceivers. Between jentaculum and breakfast the differences are as wide as between a horse-chestnut and a chestnut horse,-differences in the time when, in the place where, in the manner how, but pre-eminently in the thing which. Galen is a good authority upon such a subject, since, if like other Pagans he ate no breakfast himself, in some sense he may be called the cause of breakfast to other.
As to the time, he like many other authors says, 7rept rptrqv, ro faKporepov 7rept TETapT-7V, about the third, or at farthest about the fourth hour: and so exact is he that he assumes the day to lie exactly between six and six o'clock, and to be divided into thirteen equal portions. So the time will be a few minutes before nine, or a few minutes before ten, in the forenoon. That seems fair enough. But it is not time in respect to its location that we are concerned with, so much as time in respect to its duration.
Now, heaps of authorities take it for granted that you are not to sit down-you are to stand; and, as to the place, that any place will do-" any corner of the Forum," says Galen, "any corner that you fancy"; which is like referring a man for his salle-d-manger to Westminster Hall or Fleet Street. Augustus, in a letter still surviving, tells us that he jentabat, or took his jentaculum, in his carriage: sometimes in a wheel carriage in essedo , sometimes in a litter or palanquin in lectica.
This careless and disorderly way as to time and place, and other circumstances of haste, sufficiently indicate the quality of the meal you are to expect. Already you are "sagacious of your quarry from so far. And then to hear of such consummations as panis siccus, dry bread; or if the learned reader thinks it will taste better in Greek apros jpos!
And what may this word dry happen to mean? Not quite so bad as that, we hope. Or again-" siccum pro biscocto, ut hodie vocamus, sumemus? VII C. Biscuit might do very well, could we be sure that it was cabin biscuit: but Salmasius argues that in this case he takes it to mean " buccellatum, qui est panis nauticus"; that is, the ship company's biscuit, broken with a sledge-hammer. It is a very Barmecide feast, we do assure you-this same '"jentaculum "; at which abstinence and patience are much more exercised than the teeth: faith and hope are the chief graces cultivated, together with that species of the magnificum which is founded on the ignotum.
Even this biscuit was allowed in the most limited quantities; for which reason it is that the Greeks called this apology for a meal by the name of POVKKtLWOS, a word formed as many words were in the Post-Augustan ages from a Latin word-viz. Speaking of his uncle, Pliny the Younger says, "Post solem plerumque " lavabatur: deinde gustabat; dormiebat minimum; mox, " quasi alio die, studebat in coenme tempus': "After taking of siccus in the sense of being without opsonium,-Scottice, without "kitchen.
Possibly, however, most excellent reader, like some epicurean traveller, who, in crossing the Alps, finds himself weather-bound at St. Bernard's on Ash-Wednesday, you surmise a remedy: you descry some opening from "the loopholes of a retreat" through which a few delicacies might be insinuated to spread verdure on this arid wilderness of biscuit. Casuistry can do much. A dead hand at casuistry has often proved more than a match for Lent with all his quarantines. But sorry I am to say that, in this case, no relief is hinted at in any ancient author.
A grape or two not a bunch of grapes , a raisin or two, a date, an olivethese are the whole amount of relief 1 which the chancery of the Roman kitchen granted in such cases. All things here hang together, and prove each other,-the time, the place, the mode, the thing. Well might man eat standing, or eat in public, such a trifle as this. Go home, indeed, to such a breakfast! You would as soon think of ordering a cloth to be laid in order to eat a peach, or of asking a friend to join you in an orange. No man in his senses makes "two bites of a cherry.
Only, in taking leave of this morning's stage, throw your eyes back with me, Christian reader, upon this truly heathen meal, fit for idolatrous dogs like your Greeks and your Romans; survey, through the vista of ages, that thriceaccursed biscuit, with half a fig, perhaps, by way of garnish, and a huge hammer by its side, to secure the certainty of mastication by previous comminution.
Then turn your eyes 1 " The? Augustus did no more than most people did; secondly, he abstained only upon principles of luxury with a view to dinner; and, thirdly, for this dinner he never waited longer than up to four o'clock. You, reader, like myself, will breathe a malediction on the Classical era, and thank your stars for making you a Romanticist. Every morning I thank mine for keeping me back from the Augustan age, and reserving me to a period in which breakfast had been already invented.
In the words of Ovid, I say:"Prisca juvent alios: ego me nunc denique natum Gratulor. Hec setas moribus apta meis. But it occurs to you, my faithful reader, that perhaps he will not always be thus unhappy. I could bring waggon-loads of sentiments, Greek as well as Roman, which prove, more clearly than the most eminent pike-staff, that, as the wheel of fortune revolves, simply out of the fact that it has carried a man downwards, it must subsequently carry him upwards, no matter what dislike that wheel, or any of its spokes, may bear to that man: "non, si male nunc sit, et olim sic erit": and that, if a man, through the madness of his nation, misses coffee and hot rolls at nine, he may easily run into a leg of mutton at twelve.
True it is he may do so: truth is commendable: and I will not deny that a man may sometimes, by losing a breakfast, gain a dinner. Such things have been in various ages, and will be again, but not at Rome. There were reasons against it. We have heard of men who consider life under the idea of a wilderness-dry as a " remainder biscuit after a voyage "-and who consider a day under the idea of a little life. Life is the macrocosm, or world at large: day is the microcosm, or world in miniature.
Consequently, if life is a wilderness, then day, as a little life, is a little wilderness. And this wilderness can be safely traversed only by having relays of fountains, or stages for refreshment. Such stages, they conceive, are found in the several meals which Providence has stationed at due intervals through the day, whenever the perverseness of man does not break the chain, or derange the order of succession. These are the anchors by which man rides in that billowy. The first anchor-viz. And, as your dictionary, good reader, translated breakfast by that vain word jentaculum, so doubtless it will translate dinner by that still vainer word prandium.
Sincerely I hope that your own dinner on this day, and through all time coming, may have a better root in fact and substance than this most visionary of all baseless thingsthe Roman prandium; of which I shall presently show you that the most approved translation is moonshine. Reader, I am anything but jesting here. In the very spirit of serious truth, I assure you that the delusion about "jentaculum " is even exceeded by this other delusion about "prandium. At this moment, what is the single point of agreement between the noon meal of the English labourer and the evening meal of the English gentleman?
What is the single circumstance common to both which causes us to denominate them by the common name of dinner? It is that in both we recognise the principal meal of the day, the meal upon which is thrown the onus of the day's support. In everything else they are as wide asunder as the poles; but they agree in this one point of their function. Is it credible, now, that, to represent such a meal amongst ourselves, we select a Roman word so notoriously expressing a mere shadow, a pure apology, that very few people ever tasted it-nobody sat down to it-not many washed their hands after it, and gradually the very name of it became interchangeable with another name, implying the slightest possible act of tentative tasting or sipping?
I, as well as Pliny, had an uncle, an East Indian uncle: doubtless you have such an uncle; everybody has an Indian uncle. Generally such a person is "rather yellow, rather yellow " to quote Canning versus Lord Durham ; that is the chief fault with his physics; but, as to his morals, he is universally a man of princely aspirations and habits. He is not always so orientally rich as he is reputed; but he is always orientally munificent.
Call upon him at any hour from two to five, he insists on your taking tiffin, and such a tiffin! The English corresponding term is luncheon: but how meagre a shadow is the European meal to its glowing Asiatic cousin! Still, gloriously as tiffin shines, does anybody imagine that it is a vicarious dinner, or ever meant to be the substitute and locun tenens of dinner?
Wait till eight, and you will have your eyes opened on that subject. So of the Roman prandium: had it been as luxurious as it was simple, still it was always viewed as something meant only to stay the stomach, as a prologue to something beyond. The prandium was far enough from giving the feeblest idea even of the English luncheon; yet it stood in the same relation to the Roman day.
Now to Englishnmen that meal scarcely exists, and, were it not for women, whose delicacy of organisation does not allow them to fast so long as men, would probably be abolished. It is singular in this, as in other points, how nearly England and ancient Rome approximate. We all know how hard it is to tempt a man generally into spoiling his appetite by eating before dinner. The same dislike of violating what they called the integrity of the appetite integram famem existed in Rome. Integer means what is intact, unviolated by touch. Cicero, when protesting against spoiling his appetite for dinner by tasting anything beforehand, says integram famemr?
Nay, so much stress did the Romans lay on maintaining this primitive state of the appetite undisturbed that any prelusions with either jentaculum or prandium were said, by a very strong phrase indeed, polluere famenm-to pollute the sanctity of. The appetite was regarded as a holy vestal flame, soaring upwards towards dinner throughout the day: if undebauched, it tended to its natural consummation in ccena: expiring like a phoenix, to rise again out of its own ashes.
On this theory, to which language had accommodated itself, the two prelusive meals of nine or ten o'clock A. Such was the language. But we guess what is passing in the reader's mind. He thinks that all this proves the prandium to have been a meal of little account, and in very many cases absolutely unknown. But still he thinks all this might happen to the English dinner: that also might be neglected; supper. Many a student neglects his dinner; enthusiasm in any pursuit must often have extinguished appetite for all of us. Many a time and oft did this happen to Sir Isaac Newton.
Evidence is on record that such a deponent at eight o'clock A. Being interrogated whether Sir Isaac had pulled on the minus stocking, or gartered the plus stocking, witness replied that he had not. Being asked if Sir Isaac came to dinner, replied that he did not. Being again asked, " At sunset, did you look in on Sir Isaac? This happens to all; but was dinner not dinner, and did supper become dinner, because Sir Isaac Newton ate nothing at the first, and threw the whole day's support upon the last? No, you will say, a rule is not defeated by one casual deviation, nor by one person's constant deviation.
Everybody else was still dining at two, though Sir Isaac might not; and Sir Isaac himself on most days no more deferred his dinner beyond two than he sat in public with one stocking off. But what if everybody, Sir Isaac included, had deferred his substantial meal until night, and taken a slight refection only at two?
The question put does really represent the very case which has happened with us in England. In a large part of London took a meal at two P. At present, a large part of London is still doing the very same thing, taking one meal at two, and another at seven or eight. But the names are entirely changed: the two o'clock meal used to be called dinner, whereas at present it is called luncheon; the seven o'clock meal used to be called supper, whereas at present it is called dinner; and in both cases the difference is anything but verbal: it expresses a translation of that main meal on which the day's support rested from mid-day to evening.
Upon reviewing the idea of dinner, we soon perceive that time has little or no connexion with it: since, both in England and France, dinner has travelled, like the hand of a clock, through every hour between ten A. We have a list, well attested, of every successive hour between these limits having been the known established hour for the royal dinner-table within the last three hundred and fifty years. Time, therefore, vanishes from the problem; it is a quantity regularly exterminated.
The true elements of the idea are evidently these That dinner is that meal, no matter when taken, which is the principal meal, i. That it is therefore the meal of hospitality. That it is the meal with reference to both Nos. That it is that meal which, upon a necessity arising for the abolition of all but one, would naturally offer. Apply these four tests to prandiuz,:-How could that meal prandium answer to the first test, as the day's support, which few people touched? How could that meal prandium answer to the second test, as the meal of hospitality, at which nobody sat down?
How could that meal prandium answer to the third test, as the meal of animal food, which consisted exclusively and notoriously of bread? Or answer to the fourth test, as the privileged meal entitled to survive the abolition of the rest, which was itself abolished at all times in practice? Most of you are, no doubt, aware that Modern Physiological Science is by some persons thought to throw strong light upon the subject on which I am proposing to address you: Man's Place in Nature.
It has at all times been, in a vague way, admitted, that, in respect of his corporeal frame, man is a member of the Animal Kingdom. But, it is undeniable, that recent science tends to bring home more thoroughly the fact of this connection with the lower creatures; so that, to many well instructed persons, that being, who, in the eye of Faith, once seemed to rank only a little lower than the Angels, now appears, viewed in the light of modern speculation, hardly removed one grade above the Apes; and, just as much as these, the creature of material necessity.
Thus, the great questions of the Nature and the Destiny of Man, heretofore thought exclusively the property of theologians, seem to be brought into close relation with modern physics. I know it will be thought by some a highly dangerous course to move this matter. I know the dread, sometimes avowed, but much more often felt without avowal, that such inquiries must certainly confuse our thoughts, and, very likely may perplex our lives. But who is ignorant that, at this very moment, the literary world resounds with this discussion?
Who can close his ears to all the loud debate now going on; or can refuse to hear conclusions, fatal to every form of Human Faith, yet drawn triumphantly, and, so the reasoners, think with logic not to be evaded, from premises supplied by the undoubted science of the day? Amongst the young the most inquiring minds cannot be kept in ignorance about these things. Their elders, if they please, may try the ostrich plan of safety for themselves, or may draw back, like blinking owls from the unwelcome daylight. But in these days of universal reading mere reticence in Church or Home will not avail.
Come good, come ill, the best and manliest minds will strive to sift the matter to the bran, and try conclusions for themselves. There is, then, nothing for it but that those who would uphold the ancient faith in God and Man should don their armour, and go down to battle with this newest foe; unless, indeed, they wish to see materialists in sole possession of the field of thought, free to impose their dreary creed upon the coming age. Divines in vain protest that Man is no fit subject of Zoology. The, Naturalists refuse to be warned off the Human ground.
In virtue of man's physical frame they claim him, and will keep him in spite of all objectors, as a subject of their science; and to me it seems expedient at least to listen to them, and learn what they have to say. The faith that hides its head from all opposers is scarcely worthy to be called a faith. My plan, of course, requires me to begin with some succinct account of those researches to which I have alluded.
The compass of a single Lecture not to mention my own want of technical knowledge , will not admit of more than a broad and rapid sketch, or, as I fear I rather ought to say, a meagre. The branch of physics most closely connected with our subject is known as Comparative Physiolgy. In this department of physical inquiry the ultimate object is nothing less than to discover the plan of Organic Nature in both the great kingdoms, the Animal and the Vegetable.
The special instrument of inquiry is collation or comparison of one organic form with another, with a view to ascertain the characteristic of each, and thence to infer their relation to one another, and to the whole organic world. This science, like every other part of physical investigation, assumes, of necessity, the existence of a general plan or scheme of things; a plan of scheme towards the discovery of which the Human Intellect is capable of advancing. What then has this science to say on the subject of our inquiry.
In the comparison of organic forms the first great division which presents itself is that already noticed, into Animal and Vegetable. So vast is the difference between the more highly organised members of either kingdom—take for instance a Lion and an Oak-tree—that the untrained mind at first refuses to conceive of a possible relation between such diverse forms. Yet when compared with inorganic matter, with clay or granite, it is seen at once that beast and tree resemble each other in presenting, though under such different aspects, the grand phenomenon of vitality; and we express this very simple fact when we say that they are both alive.
Science has revealed in detail many points of resemblance between Animal and Vegetable organisms. In both, provision is made for nutrition, and for the reproduction of the species: both also possess an apparatus for the circulation of the nutrient fluid, and for respiration. And, broad as is the distinction manifest between the Animal and Vegetable, when each is highly organized, it is matter of great difficulty to discriminate between the lowest forms of the two kingdoms. The great vital divisions may be likened to two stems of a tree which divide close to the ground: as the topmost branches of each are those which have the least connection, so does the highest vegetable seem farthest removed from the highest animal organisation.
On the other hand, the two kingdoms seem to coalesce at their respective bases; just as do the stems of the tree at the point where they branch out. Now, amongst the grounds of distinction between Animals and Plants, there is this possibly essential difference; at all events it is the difference to which I shall specially direct your attention to-night—Plants are destitute of any nervous system. Vegetative or Organic Life; the brain, nerves, eye, ear, and muscular system, of Animal, or Nervous Life. The two Kingdoms being thus discriminated, the study of the resemblances and differences presented by Animals has led to the division of the Animal Kingdom into various groups; on the ground that all the members of each group, in certain points, resemble one another, and differ from the members of other groups.
The primary divisions are named Sub-Kingdoms. The ultimate Sub-Division is of Genera into Species. The Animal Kingdom is now usually divided into Five Sub-Kingdoms, each other a title, more or less descriptive of some obvious and leading peculiarity of structure. The title of the Second Sub-Kingdom, Articulata , indicates that it comprises Animals, whose bodies are composed of a succession of segments, arranged in a line—hence called jointed , or articulated, animals —of which peculiar structure the Bee and the Lobster are well known forms.
All the insect tribes belong to this Sub-Kingdom. The Third Sub-Kingdom comprises the Mollusca , so named from the softness of their bodies; some, but not all, of these Creatures are protected by a shell. The Slug and Oyster are both Molluscs. The Radiata compose the Fourth Sub-Kingdom; and take their designation from the radial or star-like symmetry of their bodies.
This form, Carpenter remarks, must in itself be regarded as a Vegetative character, for it corresponds with that which is seen in the disposition of the appendages around the axis in the leaf-buds and flower-buds of Plants. The Star-fish and Sea-Anemone are characteristic forms of the Radiata. The Fifth Sub-Kingdom contains the Protozoa , so called as being the first and lowest form of Animal Life, corresponding in rank with Protophytes in the Vegetable Kingdom. Infusoria and Sponges are members of this group.
Now, in determining the priority and mutual relations of these great groups, and of their sub-divisions, we must keep in view the principle of Animal Perfection already announced; namely, the degree of Nervous Life accorded to each, and displayed in the faculties of sensation and locomotion; and, finally, in the mental attributes of Intelligence and Will.
An animal is high in the scale, as it recedes from, low as it approaches, a mere Vegetative Life. In other words, the more it is endowed with Nervous Life the higher is it to be placed on the scale of Animal Existence. Tried by this test, we find the Protozoa scarcely entitled to rank as Animals. No definite trace of a Nervous System has yet, I believe, been discovered in them; and their claim to be reckoned Animals rests chiefly upon the nature of their food, which consists of Organic substances; whereas, Plants are enabled to assimilate mineral substances; and upon their performance, after a strange fashion of their own, of the function of digestion.
It is not until we reach the higher Radiata that we find the first definite indications of a nervous system. Every segments, or division, of these creatures is connected with a ganglionic centre; a ganglion being a little swelling lump or knot of nervous substance; and this centre seems subservient. The arrangement, like every other part of merely physical science, must continue to vary with increasing knowledge.
In short, to borrow an allusion from our local politics, these creatures may be said to have ultra-provincial constitutions. Next we come to the Two Sub-Kingdoms, immediately beneath the Vertebrata; and these indeed present a sharp and interesting contrast. On the other hand the Articulata are generally characterised by the rapidity of their movements, the great, and sometimes enormous, proportionate strength of their muscles, the extraordinary instincts displayed by some members of the group, and the large endowment of nervous with which these various gifts are connected, and on which they are, in a physical sense, dependent.
Thus the Articulata represent the gradually increasing perfection of the Nervous or Animal Life. In the Mollusca the Nervous System is by no means so striking a feature of the organisation. In many of the lower members of the class the mouth is the only indication of a head; the organs of sight, if they exist, are imperfectly evolved. But in the higher classes the case is different. Many of these possess the senses of sight and hearing, and the organs of these senses are collected upon a Head , about which the Nervous ganglions are concentrated.
But even in the highest class of Molluses the Nervous System appears subservient to the sensorial and nutritive functions. Turning to the Articulata, we find very distinct indications of an approach in Nervous structure to the Vertebrata. The characterstic feature is a double Nervous cord studded with ganglia at intervals, there being one ganlionic centre for each segment or division of the Animal.
The more alike the different segements, the more equal are the ganglia. In the lower classes, all the segments of the trunk being nearly of a size, so are the ganglia; and the power of each ganglion is almost wholly confined to its own segment.
In this they resemble the Radiata; the chief difference being that the segments of the latter are disposed in a radiate manner, whilst in all the Articulata they are longitudinally arranged. But in the higher Articulata, the great power of the Nervous System is concentrated about the head and thorax chest. The ganglia of the head are always larger and more important. They are connected with the organs of Sight and other Special Senses, and evidently possess a power of directing and controlling the movements of the entire body, whilst the power of each ganglion of the trunk is, as already said, mostly confined to its own segment.
It is obvious that the double Nervous Cord of the Articulata corresponds with, and as it were pre-figures, the Spinal Cord of Vertebrata; and that the cephalic ganglia ganglia of the head correspond with the contents, at least with a portion of the contents, of the Vertebrate skull. Ants and Bees are equalled by no other creature in the geometrical precision of their structures, their perfect adaptation of means to ends, and the absolute regularity with which each member of their wonderful societies performs its alloted part in the economy of the nest or hive.
And as pure instinct culminates in these creatures, it would seem that the higher Articulata should be treated as a lateral branch of that great tree of Organic Life, of which we have been as it were, tracing the upward growth. In their own line, there is nothing superior or equal to the Social Insects.
In continuously tracing the upward course of Nature, we must, therefore, come down again, as it were, from the topmost Articulata in order to regain the main line of progressive development. Pursuing this course, we revert to the highest of the Mollusca, the Cephalopoda; and here we find the hint of the structure which gives to Animals of the highest Sub-Kingdom the name of Vertebrata. The Nervous centres of the Insect are protected by firmly jointed rings, which may be regarded as an exterior skeleton.
But the Cephalopod, known as the Cuttlefish, possesses in the bone, which is a well-known article of commerce, the rudiments of a true internal skeleton. If amongst the Articulata we find the first trace of the Spinal Cord, it is here that the bony case which is to hold it begins to make its appearance. The ribs, and even the limbs, are equally developments of vertebral appendages. Now, what is the significance of this new rigid element in the structure of animals of the highest Sub-Kingdom? If we see a man providing himself with a strong box, we judge that he is getting ready a safe receptacle for treasure; and similarly this new precaution taken by Nature in the structure of the Spinal Column and skull surely indicates that the contents of these parts are of paramount importance in the animal economy—as we know to be the case.
The Vertebrata are divided into four great classes—I. Mammalia Sucklers ; II. Aves Birds ; III.
Reptilia Reptiles ; IV. Pisces Fishes. The gradual ascent in type is even more evident in this division of the Animal Kingdom than in the lower part of the scale. This diagram shows how the three superior classes of Mammals, Birds, and Reptiles, rise gradually upwards, each above the one immediately below it, by the improvement of some vital function; each advance implying increased organic complexity and fitting the creature for a higher mode of life. The functions which I have here selected for comparison are, you see, all functions of the organic life; respiration, circulation, and re-production.
But I do not mean to abandon that which I have selected as the best criterion of progress in the scale of being, viz, the advancing perfection of the nervous system. The four classes of vertebrates will retain the same relative positions, whether we take as our criterion the perfection of the apparatus of Organic, or that of Animal Life: for the type of Organic Life is raised and improved concurrently with the advance of the Animal Life which it subserves.
I have referred to the provision made by Nature in the spinal column and skull for. The inspection of vertebrate forms shows the necessity for this provision in the increasing complexity and delicacy of the Nervous Apparatus, and in its greater importance relatively to the entire Organism. Bearing in mind that the Nervous System of Insects is capable of two great divisions, viz.
These are called the cerebellum and cerebrum. So that in vertebrates we may take a general view of the system of nervous centres as comprising 1 the spinal cord with its extensions; 2 the sensory ganglia, or nervous organs of the special senses of sight, hearing, and smell and perhaps of general tactile sensibility; which, collectively, may be called the Sensorium; 3 the cerebellum; 4 the cerebrum. The first two, you will recollect, and those only, have their analogues in the Insects and higher Molluscs.
From the fact that the greatest proportionate development of sensory ganglia occurs in those tribes of living creatures, I mean the social insects, in which instinct is most powerful, Physiologists infer, no doubt justly, that the physical seat to instinct is in that part of the frame. Now there is, in comparative Physiology, without calling in the aid of other sciences, the very strongest ground for a similar inference respecting the physical seat of intelligence as distinguished from instinct.
For, as we pass from one type of vertebrated animal to another we find that the intelligence of the species appears to increase in a just ratio with the increase in the size of the cerebrum; and this organ also becomes, at every step upwards, more and more complex in structure. The inference of course is, that the cerebrum is the physical organ of intelligence. Of the cerebellum the functions seem to be to some extent unascertained. It is largest in man, and appears to be a necessary accompaniment of the expanding powers of the cerebrum.
It is generally considered as enabling us unconsciously to combine and harmonise the efforts of a great variety of muscles in complex actions, in obedience to a general volition. We have all seen how a complicated piece of music may be performed automatically, if the piece be well known to the performer; although in learning the piece each movement might have required the exertion of the will.
The direction of this sort of automatic action seems to be one, at least, of the functions of the cerebellum, acting in conjunction with the sensory ganglia. Returning to the structure of the Cerebrum: it is divided into two sections, known as the Cerebral Hemispheres. The Hemispheres occupy quite a subordinate position in the lower classes of Vertebrates—that is in Fishes and Reptiles. Looking, from above, at the brain of a Cod-fish, the sensory ganglia, especially those pertaining to the Organs of Sight and Smell, are very prominent objects, and form the chief mass of the brain.
Gradually, as we rise in the scale, the Cerebral Hemispheres assume increased importance, till in the Mammalia they form the mass of the brain, capping and completely covering in the sensory ganglia, and also, more or less, over-lapping the Cerebellum. The Cerebellum partly shows itself, however, when we look at the brain from above downwards, in every creature except man himself, and those animals which, in general structure, make a close approach to the Human type—I mean, of course, the Monkeys, Baboons, and Apes.
In all these animals the posterior lobe of the Cerebrum is well developed, and completely covers the Cerebellum when the brain is viewed from above. Monkeys; and that the difference between the brains of the Chimpanzee and Man is almost insignificant, when compared with that between the Chimpanzee brain and that of the Lemur. Both are included in the order Quadrumana. Yet it should not be too hastily inferred that these creatures, the Apes and Monkeys, are nearest man in point of intelligence.
The intelligence of the Elephant and Dog so far exceeding that of the larger part of the Quadrumana, although their brains are of a type much more remote from the Human, may serve as Lyell remarks to convince us that we are yet far from understanding the real nature of the connection of intellectual superiority with Cerebral development. Time will not allow me to enter into any detail of the experiments which have confirmed inferential reasoning respecting the functions of the various Nervous centres.
Suffice it to observe that the paramount importance of the Cerebrum is ascertained by a common experience. Severe injuries to the Human brain which involve the Cerebral hemispheres, whether through external violence, or through disease, are instantly attended by deprivation of all power of manifesting any Mental Faculty. In such cases, when persons recover, it is commonly found that they have remained totally unconscious from the time when they received the injury until their recovery; the intervening period having been a blank in their Mental Life.
Nor can I do more than glance at the Darwinian theory. All existing forms of life, it teaches, may gradually have been evolved in the course of ages, from a very few primal types; perhaps from one only. Darwin's reasoning has, of course, a bearing on the question of our affinity to the Brute Creation.
It goes to show—not indeed that we are descended from Gorillas, but—that Man and the existing Apes may have been slowly developed by change after change from some common form now extinct. Thus, though it is not asserted that our progenitors were Apes, yet it is plain on Mr. Darwin's theory, that these beasts are entitled to put in a detestable claim of cousin-ship to Man.
I do not see, however, that the question of our affinity to the Brute Creation is, in reality, affected by the theory of development. That affinity in truth depends upon the identity of our physical constitution with that of the lower Animals; and this can be established, and is, I think, established, independently of a genetic relation.
On the whole, the general conclusions of Physiological Science, upon evidence of which I have here summarised some portions only, are:— First , that the Cerebrum is the Organ, or Physical seat of Man's mental faculties; Secondly , that this structure is not peculiar to Man, but is possessed by many of the higher Animals; Lastly , that the most highly organised Brutes, the Anthropoid Apes, approach so closely to Man in cerebral structure that it is not possible, in the present state of Science, to establish any anatomical or physiological distinction between them.
No scientific man, I had almost said no rational being, now disputes the fact that life existed on this planet of ours for immeasurable ages before the appearance of Mankind upon the scene. Geology adds, as a probable opinion, that these creatures have made their several entrances in the order of their dignity. Stranger yet, it seems that each individual member of the higher orders passes, in the embryonic stages of its growth, through a succession of phases corresponding very closely to the great ascending steps of universal Nature.
And now, at last, I turn to make enquiry, how should these facts affect our views of Man as a responsible being, and as a living soul. If it has hitherto been held that man possesses, by Divine ordination, a faculty of determining his own actions within certain limits—free will in short—do the revelations of Physiology consist with this belief? Again, if we have believed that the Mind of Man is an immaterial substance, not of necessity bound to the body which is its present Organ of expression, nor ceasing to exist upon the dissolution of that body, are we required by Physical Science to surrender, or to modify that faith?
It has been proved to demonstration, the Materialist will promptly answer, that Thought, Fancy, Feeling, are merely operations of that aggregation of material particles, which constitutes the Brain of Man. Could we, with adequate knowledge and instruments investigate the working of that organ, can it be doubted that we might trace in every detail those molecular changes which we call the action of the mind?
The Past, Present, and Future of every one of us lie packed, they will aver, in that small receptacle, the Human Cranium. Even existing Science is justified in stating, that in the tissues of the Human Brain, all that a Man has been, is faithfully recorded, all that he is unmistakably expressed, all that he will be, infallibly pre-determined and announced.
We await only fuller knowledge to decipher on these fleshly tables, inscriptions, of an inexorable fate. In replying to such assertions, feeling is apt to get the stat of reason. At least to me: I would not stay. Now my confidence is fixed, that feeling here does not mislead us; that emotion so uniform, so powerful, so pure, as this which springs up to rebuke the cold pedantry of the Positive school has a deep, perennial source in the Reason of Mankind, and the Reality of Things.
To express this reason, and give the argument a shape, is by no means easy. That, however, is what I shall try to do; but let no one take my failure for the failure of the grounds I go on. First then, I say, there is a plain absurdity in the assumption that cerebral phenomena and mental, being concurrent, are therefore identical.
If there be such a thing as mind;—and the materialist must not set out by assuming the contrary;—it may be that by the will of God, certain mental events, call them if you please, phenomena, are ordained to run in parallel series with certain physical, events; just as if, to give a very simple illustration, two files of soldiers should be moving simultaneously along opposite sides of a street; halting together; again advancing together; manoeuvre throughout answering to manoeuvre; the companies so appearing inseparably connected in their movements; and in point of fact inseparably connected; not, however, by a physical.
I, for my part, am prepared to grant that every Thought, Emotion and Memory of Man may have its physical counterpart; but the Materialist confounds the physical expression with the thing expressed. The absurdity is as great as it would be to identify the motions of the Telegraphic apparatus with the transmitted message. As those motions are merely the selected vehicles of expression, so may it be, —so is it, as I believe—with the apparatus of the Human Mind. In short, the mistake of Materialism is the old confusion between symbol and thing signified, which has played such wild work in the World.
However much you refine and attenuate the living organism, yet after all, Thought is something quite unlike the whitest and thinnest tissue; and the most delicate of fibres, woven, if you please, in fairy loom, cannot be spun into Emotions. Nor is it at all easier to imagine Ideas and Feelings to be the results of organisation, and to constitute one of the physical relations of atoms; and, if anyone affirms that the juxta-position of a number of particles makes a Hope, and that an aggregation of curious textures forms Veneration, he afirms a proposition to which I can attach no idea.
Agitate and affect these structures as you will, pass them through every imaginable change, let them vibrate and glow and take a thousand hues; still you can get nothing but motion and temperature and colour; fit marks and curious signals of Thought behind themselves, but no more to be confounded with it, than are written characters to be mistaken for the genius and knowledge which may record themselves in language. The corporeal frame then is but the mechanism for making Thoughts and Affections apparent , the signal-house with which God has covered us, the electric telegraph by which quickest information flies abroad of the Spiritual force within us.
The instrument may be broken, the dial-plate effaced; and though the hidden artist can make no more signs, he may be as rich as ever in the things to be signified. Fever may fire the pulses of the body: but Wisdom and Sanctity cannot sicken, be inflamed, and die. Neither consumption can waste, nor fracture mutilate, nor gunpowder scatter away, Thought and Fidelity and Love, but only that organisation which the Spirit sequestered therein renders so fair and noble.
To suppose such a thing would be to invert the order of rank, which God has visibly established among the forces of our World, and to give a downright ascendency to the brute energies of matter, above the Vitality of the Mind, which up to that point, discovers, subdues, and rules them. But next, perhaps, the contention is, that Thought and Feeling are mere effects of a material cause. That the bursting of a small duct on the Brain, should, in a moment, destroy the life of Consciousness, and put a stop to every Mental process, is, no doubt, as has been said, a fact of which the significance cannot be increased by the adduction of a thousand like instances.
In this, it may be argued, and in the cognate phenomena of Insanity, and of old Age, is the plain proof that Mind is a mere Organic function; suspended when the Organ is deranged, and, on its dissolution, ceasing altogether. Now, in common speech, we do, no doubt, talks of the physical occurrence, the apoplexy, the fever, or the blow, as the very cause of the Mind's failure. But, on a closer scrutiny, we find we are not justified in making such an inference.
In truth, we have no right to speak at all of a material cause. Of natural phenomena we know only this, that one event , improperly referred to as effect, invariably attends upon, or. This sounds abstruse; yet I believe, by homely illustration it may be made intelligible; and it is a most important point for the Mind to seize, and keep firm hold of. Suppose some one watching, in a mill or factory, the slow revolution of a huge wheel, or endless band; and that he could, from his stand-point, command a view of but a small part of the entire revolution, the rest being screened from him.
Let one point on the tire, or revolving circumference, be supposed to bear some distinguishing mark, say a number, and other points at certain distances other consecutive numbers. After watching for a time the movement before him, the spectator of course becomes aware of the order in rotation of these numbers; and at the return of No. Now, this is exactly like our observation of Nature. We become aware that physical phenomena follow one another in a certain, invariable order; so that the appearance of a known antecedent phenomenon prepares us to expect, and enables us to predict, the appearance in due course of the regular consequent.
Or it may be that two phenomena occur together, in which case we know, that when one is perceived the other also is present. But, more than this Physics can never teach us. They can never warrant us in declaring that one phenomenon is the true, that is, the efficient, cause of some other of which it is the precursor, or companion. In the case of the revolving wheel, we never for one moment suppose that the emergence of the first marked point causes the emergence of that which we know is next to follow.
True, in this example, the Mind is not tempted into such a fallacy; since it is known that the real source of the succession we behold is the motive power of the machinery. But the forces which actuate Nature's great machine are beyond our ken. What they do we know, not what in themselves they are. We are not behind the scenes of that great show, and hence are tempted by that law of our Mental structure which will demand a cause for everything, to attribute casuality to what, as far as we know, is a mere antecedent. Nor does it signify, that in Nature force seems to be transmitted in each of her operations.
It is as if we should see the balls upon the table, but not the player; and so should foolishly be moved to attribute to mere ivory impinging upon ivory a power which lies not in dead matter, but in some living Will giving the primal impulse.
That Physical Science, apart from mental experience, tells nothing whatever of the cause of Physical events, but merely ascertains their sequences, is a truth admitted by both the great opposing schools into which all modern Philosophers may be divided. Since Hume, all agree that Natural Science is conversant only with the invariable succession of antecedent and consequent, and must disclaim all knowledge of efficient causes, and all idea of necessary connection between cause and effect.
Uniform experience leads us to expect that one phenomenon will be followed by a certain other, but gives us no right to affirm that it must be so followed. Physics in short, have no concern at all with efficient causes; which are indeed explained away, or quite ignored, by the Positive School of Metaphysics. Those Philosophers to whom the Materialist would make his appeal as the only trustworthy authorities, Hume, Brown, Comte, the two Mills, Bain, concur in this; which is the very cornerstone of their Philosophy.
The last argument of the Materialist is then as. The phenomena of Disease, Insanity, old Age and the like, give no just ground for the conclusion that Thought and Feeling are mere products of the material organisation. Again I say, the Physical are not shown to be more than concomitants of the Mental occurrences; and i [ unclear: ] is still open to the Theist to refer their connection to the Will of the Almighty.
I am fully aware that in spite of every argument there will remain on some minds a strong, though perhaps not distinct impression, that the advance of physical science, unfolding more and more as it is doing the boundless plan of creation is decidedly adverse to a belief in Human responsibility. The sources of this general notion are well worth exploration. But I must now limit myself to the narrow ground of the special tendency in this direction of the physical facts I am to-night endeavouring to interpret.
Before concluding, I propose, therefore, to say something on the seemingly close affinity to the Brute Creation which the Naturalists have fastened upon us. At the first aspect of the facts on which this unpleasing conclusion is based; when, too, we hear an Owen declare that to determine the difference between Homo and Pithecus is the Anatomist's difficulty; or when a Huxley affirms, that no cerebral barrier intervenes between us and the Quadrumana; our blood begins to curdle, and for a time, we are on the way to think that the dignity of Man, his awful responsibilities, his Heavenly hopes, alike are dreams of Theologians, which the wiser modern world has now left far behind it.
Anatomy, it is said, can detect no difference between the brain of a Newton and that of the last discovered Ape. Is it indeed so? So much the worse then for Anatomy! At most it comes to this, that there exist no physical signs of an enormous disparity. But this is no reason for discrediting our own most certain conviction that the disparity does, in fact, exist.