Certainly love is influenced by hormones such as oxytocin , neurotrophins such as NGF , and pheromones , and how people think and behave in love is influenced by their conceptions of love. The conventional view in biology is that there are two major drives in love: sexual attraction and attachment. Attachment between adults is presumed to work on the same principles that lead an infant to become attached to its mother.
The traditional psychological view sees love as being a combination of companionate love and passionate love. Passionate love is intense longing, and is often accompanied by physiological arousal shortness of breath, rapid heart rate ; companionate love is affection and a feeling of intimacy not accompanied by physiological arousal. Greek distinguishes several different senses in which the word "love" is used.
At the same time, the Ancient Greek text of the Bible has examples of the verb agapo having the same meaning as phileo. The term s'agapo means I love you in Greek. The word agapo is the verb I love. It generally refers to a "pure," ideal type of love, rather than the physical attraction suggested by eros. However, there are some examples of agape used to mean the same as eros. It has also been translated as "love of the soul. The Greek word erota means in love. Plato refined his own definition.
Although eros is initially felt for a person, with contemplation it becomes an appreciation of the beauty within that person, or even becomes appreciation of beauty itself. Eros helps the soul recall knowledge of beauty and contributes to an understanding of spiritual truth. Lovers and philosophers are all inspired to seek truth by eros. Some translations list it as "love of the body". Philia is motivated by practical reasons; one or both of the parties benefit from the relationship. It can also mean "love of the mind. It was an almost ritualized friendship formed between a host and his guest, who could previously have been strangers.
The host fed and provided quarters for the guest, who was expected to repay only with gratitude. The importance of this can be seen throughout Greek mythology —in particular, Homer 's Iliad and Odyssey. The Latin language has several different verbs corresponding to the English word "love. The Romans used it both in an affectionate sense as well as in a romantic or sexual sense. From this verb come amans —a lover, amator, "professional lover," often with the accessory notion of lechery—and amica , "girlfriend" in the English sense, often being applied euphemistically to a prostitute.
The corresponding noun is amor the significance of this term for the Romans is well illustrated in the fact, that the name of the City, Rome —in Latin: Roma —can be viewed as an anagram for amor , which was used as the secret name of the City in wide circles in ancient times ,  which is also used in the plural form to indicate love affairs or sexual adventures. This same root also produces amicus —"friend"—and amicitia , "friendship" often based to mutual advantage, and corresponding sometimes more closely to "indebtedness" or "influence".
Cicero wrote a treatise called On Friendship de Amicitia , which discusses the notion at some length. Ovid wrote a guide to dating called Ars Amatoria The Art of Love , which addresses, in depth, everything from extramarital affairs to overprotective parents. Diligere often has the notion "to be affectionate for," "to esteem," and rarely if ever is used for romantic love. This word would be appropriate to describe the friendship of two men. The corresponding noun diligentia , however, has the meaning of "diligence" or "carefulness," and has little semantic overlap with the verb.
Observare is a synonym for diligere ; despite the cognate with English, this verb and its corresponding noun, observantia , often denote "esteem" or "affection. As it arises from a conflation with a Greek word, there is no corresponding verb. Two philosophical underpinnings of love exist in the Chinese tradition, one from Confucianism which emphasized actions and duty while the other came from Mohism which championed a universal love.
In Confucianism, one displays benevolent love by performing actions such as filial piety from children, kindness from parents, loyalty to the king and so forth. In this, he argued directly against Confucians who believed that it was natural and correct for people to care about different people in different degrees.
Mozi, by contrast, believed people in principle should care for all people equally. Mohism stressed that rather than adopting different attitudes towards different people, love should be unconditional and offered to everyone without regard to reciprocation; not just to friends, family and other Confucian relations. In Buddhism, Ai was seen as capable of being either selfish or selfless, the latter being a key element towards enlightenment.
Instead of frequently saying "I love you" as in some Western societies, the Chinese are more likely to express feelings of affection in a more casual way. The Japanese language uses three words to convey the English equivalent of "love". Because "love" covers a wide range of emotions and behavioral phenomena, there are nuances distinguishing the three terms.
Following the Meiji Restoration , the term became associated with "love" in order to translate Western literature. In contemporary literature, kama refers usually to sexual desire. The concept kama is found in some of the earliest known verses in Vedas. For example, Book 10 of Rig Veda describes the creation of the universe from nothing by the great heat.
There in hymn , it states:. The children of Adam are limbs of one body Having been created of one essence. When the calamity of time afflicts one limb The other limbs cannot remain at rest. If you have no sympathy for the troubles of others You are not worthy to be called by the name of "man".
Sa'di , Gulistan. Rumi , Hafiz and Sa'di are icons of the passion and love that the Persian culture and language present. Chesed , often translated as loving-kindness, is used to describe many forms of love between human beings. The commandment to love other people is given in the Torah , which states, "Love your neighbor like yourself" Leviticus The Torah's commandment to love God "with all your heart, with all your soul and with all your might" Deuteronomy is taken by the Mishnah a central text of the Jewish oral law to refer to good deeds, willingness to sacrifice one's life rather than commit certain serious transgressions, willingness to sacrifice all of one's possessions, and being grateful to the Lord despite adversity tractate Berachoth Rabbinic literature differs as to how this love can be developed, e.
As for love between marital partners, this is deemed an essential ingredient to life: "See life with the wife you love" Ecclesiastes Rabbi David Wolpe writes that " It is when one person believes in another person and shows it. What we really feel is reflected in what we do. The 20th-century Rabbi Eliyahu Eliezer Dessler is frequently quoted as defining love from the Jewish point of view as "giving without expecting to take" from his Michtav me-Eliyahu , Vol. The Christian understanding is that love comes from God.
The love of man and woman— eros in Greek—and the unselfish love of others agape , are often contrasted as "descending" and "ascending" love, respectively, but are ultimately the same thing. Christians believe that to Love God with all your heart, mind, and strength and Love your neighbor as yourself are the two most important things in life the greatest commandment of the Jewish Torah , according to Jesus ; cf.
Gospel of Mark chapter 12, verses 28— Saint Augustine summarized this when he wrote "Love God, and do as thou wilt. The Apostle Paul glorified love as the most important virtue of all. Describing love in the famous poetic interpretation in 1 Corinthians , he wrote, "Love is patient, love is kind. It does not envy, it does not boast, it is not proud. It is not rude, it is not self-seeking, it is not easily angered, it keeps no record of wrongs. Love does not delight in evil but rejoices with the truth. It always protects, always trusts, always hopes, and always perseveres.
The Apostle John wrote, "For God so loved the world that he gave his one and only Son, that whoever believes in him shall not perish but have eternal life. For God did not send his Son into the world to condemn the world, but to save the world through him.
Everyone who loves has been born of God and knows God. Whoever does not love does not know God, because God is love. Saint Augustine says that one must be able to decipher the difference between love and lust. Lust, according to Saint Augustine, is an overindulgence, but to love and be loved is what he has sought for his entire life.
Christian theologians see God as the source of love, which is mirrored in humans and their own loving relationships. Influential Christian theologian C. Lewis wrote a book called The Four Loves. Benedict XVI named his first encyclical God is love. He said that a human being, created in the image of God, who is love, is able to practice love; to give himself to God and others agape and by receiving and experiencing God's love in contemplation eros.
This life of love, according to him, is the life of the saints such as Teresa of Calcutta and the Blessed Virgin Mary and is the direction Christians take when they believe that God loves them. Pope Francis taught that "True love is both loving and letting oneself be loved It is the activity of the greatest, and the source, of all the powers in the universe: God's.
In Christianity the practical definition of love is summarised by St. Thomas Aquinas , who defined love as "to will the good of another," or to desire for another to succeed. As Thomas Aquinas explains, Christian love is motivated by the need to see others succeed in life, to be good people. He causes his sun to rise on the evil and the good, and sends rain on the righteous and the unrighteous. If you love those who love you, what reward will you get?
Are not even the tax collectors doing that? And if you greet only your own people, what are you doing more than others? Do not even pagans do that? Be perfect, therefore, as your heavenly Father is perfect. Do not forget to love with forgiveness, Christ saved an adulterous women from those who would stone her. A world of wronged hypocrites needs forgiving love. Mosaic Law would hold Deuteronomy "If a man is found lying with a woman married to a husband, then both of them shall die — the man that lay with the woman, and the woman; so you shall put away the evil from Israel.
If a young woman who is a virgin is betrothed to a husband, and a man finds her in the city and lies with her, then you shall bring them both out to the gate of that city, and you shall stone them to death with stones, the young woman because she did not cry out in the city, and the man because he humbled his neighbor's wife; so you shall put away the evil from among you. Tertullian wrote regarding love for enemies: "Our individual, extraordinary, and perfect goodness consists in loving our enemies. To love one's friends is common practice, to love one's enemies only among Christians.
Love encompasses the Islamic view of life as universal brotherhood that applies to all who hold faith. God is also referenced at the beginning of every chapter in the Qur'an as Ar-Rahman and Ar-Rahim , or the "Most Compassionate" and the "Most Merciful", indicating that nobody is more loving, compassionate and benevolent than God. The Qur'an refers to God as being "full of loving kindness.
Birr is also used by the Qur'an in describing the love and kindness that children must show to their parents. Ishq , or divine love, is the emphasis of Sufism in the Islamic tradition. Practitioners of Sufism believe that love is a projection of the essence of God to the universe. God desires to recognize beauty, and as if one looks at a mirror to see oneself, God "looks" at himself within the dynamics of nature. Since everything is a reflection of God, the school of Sufism practices to see the beauty inside the apparently ugly. Sufism is often referred to as the religion of love.
A common viewpoint of Sufism is that through love, humankind can get back to its inherent purity and grace. The saints of Sufism are infamous for being "drunk" due to their love of God ; hence, the constant reference to wine in Sufi poetry and music. It is an obstacle on the path to enlightenment , since it is selfish. It is complementary to wisdom and is necessary for enlightenment.
This love is unconditional and requires considerable self-acceptance. This is quite different from ordinary love, which is usually about attachment and sex and which rarely occurs without self-interest. Instead, in Buddhism it refers to detachment and unselfish interest in others' welfare. The Bodhisattva ideal in Mahayana Buddhism involves the complete renunciation of oneself in order to take on the burden of a suffering world.
The strongest motivation one has in order to take the path of the Bodhisattva is the idea of salvation within unselfish, altruistic love for all sentient beings. For many Hindu schools, it is the third end Kama in life. Kamadeva is often pictured holding a bow of sugar cane and an arrow of flowers; he may ride upon a great parrot. He is usually accompanied by his consort Rati and his companion Vasanta, lord of the spring season. Karuna is compassion and mercy, which impels one to help reduce the suffering of others.
Bhakti is a Sanskrit term, meaning "loving devotion to the supreme God. Hindu writers, theologians, and philosophers have distinguished nine forms of bhakti , which can be found in the Bhagavata Purana and works by Tulsidas. The philosophical work Narada Bhakti Sutras , written by an unknown author presumed to be Narada , distinguishes eleven forms of love. In certain Vaishnava sects within Hinduism, attaining unadulterated, unconditional and incessant love for Godhead is considered the foremost goal of life. Gaudiya Vaishnavas who worship Krishna as the Supreme Personality of Godhead and the cause of all causes consider Love for Godhead Prema to act in two ways: sambhoga and vipralambha union and separation —two opposites.
In the condition of separation, there is an acute yearning for being with the beloved and in the condition of union there is supreme happiness and nectarean. Gaudiya Vaishnavas consider that Krishna-prema Love for Godhead is not fire but that it still burns away one's material desires. It is not water, but it washes away everything—one's pride, religious rules, and one's shyness.
Krishna-prema is considered to make one drown in the ocean of transcendental ecstasy and pleasure. The love of Radha, a cowherd girl, for Krishna is often cited as the supreme example of love for Godhead by Gaudiya Vaishnavas. Radha is considered to be the internal potency of Krishna, and is the supreme lover of Godhead.
Her example of love is considered to be beyond the understanding of material realm as it surpasses any form of selfish love or lust that is visible in the material world. In the Bhakti tradition within Hinduism, it is believed that execution of devotional service to God leads to the development of Love for God taiche bhakti-phale krsne prema upajaya , and as love for God increases in the heart, the more one becomes free from material contamination krishna-prema asvada haile, bhava nasa paya.
Being perfectly in love with God or Krishna makes one perfectly free from material contamination. In this tradition, salvation or liberation is considered inferior to love, and just an incidental by-product. Being absorbed in Love for God is considered to be the perfection of life. The term "free love" has been used  to describe a social movement that rejects marriage , which is seen as a form of social bondage. The Free Love movement's initial goal was to separate the state from sexual matters such as marriage, birth control , and adultery.
It claimed that such issues were the concern of the people involved, and no one else. Many people in the early 19th century believed that marriage was an important aspect of life to "fulfill earthly human happiness. This mentality created a vision of strongly defined gender roles, which provoked the advancement of the free love movement as a contrast. The term "sex radical" has been used interchangeably with the term "free lover". The philosophy of love is a field of social philosophy and ethics that attempts to explain the nature of love.
Many different theories attempt to explain the nature and function of love. Explaining love to a hypothetical person who had not himself or herself experienced love or being loved would be very difficult because to such a person love would appear to be quite strange if not outright irrational behavior.
Among the prevailing types of theories that attempt to account for the existence of love are: psychological theories, the vast majority of which consider love to be very healthy behavior; evolutionary theories which hold that love is part of the process of natural selection ; spiritual theories which may, for instance consider love to be a gift from a god; and theories that consider love to be an unexplainable mystery, very much like a mystical experience.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Love disambiguation. Types of love. Meanwhile, Riley returns to the vampire nest alone, despite agreeing to wait. After staking the vampire that hurt Buffy, Riley blows up the rest of the vampires in the crypt with a grenade. Spike and Buffy fight out a play-by-play of the battle, which took place on a subway train.
Spike then explains that the key to his victories was not in the particular moves or blows; the key was that each Slayer has a death wish, a desire to experience death, after causing so much of it, additionally claiming that Buffy also has this wish, but has ties to the world that keep her anchored. They want to know what comes next because they wish for a final peace after a lifetime of being solely responsible for protecting the world from demons.
Spike explains that the second that that desire takes over, the Slayer will die because there are countless vampires just waiting to take advantage of this, a conclusion that Buffy immediately rejects. It would never be you. Crying softly, Spike begins to gather up the scattered bills, but his feelings of sadness and humiliation are quickly overtaken by anger and hatred. Furious, Spike returns to his crypt and arms himself with a double-barreled shotgun, intent on killing Buffy for her final insult.
Harmony begs him to reconsider his plan because he has tried and failed so many times before. She reminds him that the chip in his head will not let him hurt a human, and the Slayer will only beat him up again, if not stake him outright. Spike retorts that his pain will last for a couple of hours, and Buffy will be dead much longer than that. In the background is a Chaos demon , with huge slimy antlers, with whom Drusilla had been flirting.
She recognizes, long before Spike does, his feelings for Buffy, and rejects him because he is no longer the same creature that had satisfied her for so many years. He insists that he did it all for her, to protect her because he loved her, but she cannot be convinced. Buffy returns home, still shaken from the combined experiences of the last 24 hours, and finds her mother packing clothes and toiletries into a suitcase.
She inquires where Joyce was going, and her mother explains that her health condition has worsened to the point that she is going to stay in the hospital for observation and a CAT scan. This final revelation is too much for Buffy, who retreats to her back porch in tears. At that moment, Spike approaches with his shotgun, full of resolve born of rejection and anger. However, he slows his pace when he sees that she is crying. Her pain stays his hand, his demeanor softens, and all his plans to shoot her are abandoned.
He asks her what is wrong, and how he can help. She is surprised and confused at his reaction, and has no response, so he sets the gun down and takes a seat next to her on the porch. Sign In Don't have an account? Start a Wiki. Buffy the Vampire Slayer Season 5, Episode 7.
Contents [ show ]. Categories :. Buffy the Vampire Slayer. Episode Guide. Joyce Summers. Cecily Addams. Edward Fletcher. Male Partygoer. Katharine Leonard. Female Partygoer. Matthew Lang. Chris Daniels. Stabbing Vampire. Ken Feinberg. Chaos Demon. Steve Heinze. Buffy - "Look, I realize that every Slayer comes with an expiration mark on the package. But I want mine to be a long time from now. Like a Cheeto.
She did not seek attention or accolades. He has had feelings for his s this is sweet vanilla romance at its best. Younger than him, his little sisters best friend, she was unattainable. The New York Times is one of the most trusted authorities on the best and most popular of the literary world. I try so very hard to fulfill and obey my Lord, to be perfect, and I fail miserably daily, my feeble attempts are barely anything.
Xander - "You know what he's like? He's like a cat. You know, a big jungle cat. How come I'm not like that? It's just so cool. Spike - "I know I'm a bad poet, but I'm a good man. All I ask is that Cecily - "I do see you. That's the problem. You're nothing to me, William. You're beneath me. Angel - "You can't keep this up forever.
If I can't teach you, maybe someday an angry crowd will. Spike - "The only thing about the dance is, you never get to stop.