The moral blindness that still prevails today over Vietnam may be associated, on the one hand, with the continuity of the power of the United States in international affairs and, on the other hand, the inability of American society to distance itself from the crimes that have been committed. Archives and evidence are therefore undeniably important to the various opposing forces, and their political implications are significant in political disputes.
The latest historiographical approaches have made the search for the past more complex than just the interplay of present-day interests. Authors such as Hayden White, in abolishing the search for an original, non-linguistic presence, reduce all approaches to attempts at interpretation that are restricted to the domain of language.
One of the characteristics of contemporary historiography is the systematic revision of political conflicts in the modern era. In France, in addition to revising major events associated with the French Revolution, the legacy of the Vichy government is constantly being reinterpreted. In this case, the inability of the victims to respond has been observed. Incapable of understanding the experiences they have lived through or of ascribing meaning to them, they become unable to use their memories selectively.
Memory therefore cannot be reduced to a political tool; it extends beyond attempts to control it. In the words of Georges Bataille, revealing the effects of the Hiroshima bombing became the opposite of revealing the facts Bataille, That is to say, human representation of this catastrophe is not capable of accurately conveying the dimensions of the event and, instead, has the perverse effect of making banal something that is not so. In his view, as there are no words to describe the horror, the feeling of horror cannot be the starting point for attempts to describe this horror ibidem.
In providing an explanation of what has happened, the history that is recounted serves to justify unjustifiable violence and banish it from the collective imagination. We may understand that there are no words to describe horror and that those who try to explain it end up by eliminating any possibility of facing or repairing the tragedy. Individuals find refuge in action, but do not always resolve problems related to violence and suffering, which are basic components of human life. Researchers in various academic areas have been involved in studying the possibilities of reconstructing and explaining trauma.
For Freud, trauma is a consequence either of the devastating nature of an event or the psychic apparatus of the individual, which may not be prepared to respond to certain stimuli Freud, When a particularly powerful stimulus acts on us, we may not be capable of responding to it.
The Conception Of The Final Solution (Topics In History Book 3) - Kindle edition by Corey Walden. Download it once and read it on your Kindle device, PC. The Holocaust stands as one of the most infamous events in all of human history. From this naturally comes a large amount of academic literature delving into.
It breaks down our protective barriers to become part of our actual being and we are not able to defend ourselves against it. Our self-awareness fails. This explains the nightmares that repeatedly return, leaving individuals drained and unable to defend themselves. Past aggression returns in flashbacks, nightmares and other similar phenomena; it is the cause of certain symptoms, namely repetitive actions that aim to reduce the stress caused by the initial aggression. Memory and forgetting also involve ethical and moral issues.
Scheler, in his study on resentment, indicates how profound experiences related to suffering and humiliation can lead to a highly contagious feeling of vengeance and rancour Scheler and Frings, In relating a traumatic experience to the identity of its subject, we may see that his attitude towards the past does not revolve solely around the knowledge of what he has left behind. Memory cannot be considered only as a reconstructed past. It may make the individual relive an experience and evoke new desires and emotions that may be extremely negative and self-destructive.
Returning to the past may include the possibility of understanding, but it equally revives feelings that had previously been repressed. Even if representation is possible, we must enquire whether it is desirable, and if it is possible to integrate the trauma into our lives in a connected rather than pathological manner. This anthropologist correctly argues that the conquest had already taken place and did not require such violence Taussig, How are we to understand the Holocaust?
How do we explain the massacre of the Tutsis in Rwanda? What can be said about the attitude of the Serbs in Kosovo? The more historians search for explanations for barbarities that have been committed, the more these excesses seem to remain beyond our logical and rational comprehension. The extermination of the Jews cannot be the object of theoretical discussion; it was a unique event and needs to be recorded as such. Since recollection of the traumatic event is, in most cases, extremely faithful and rigorous in its use of detail, it offers direct access to the real. The extreme violence of the Holocaust has enabled historians to reorganise their understanding of the real.
What the individual describes is not a construction of an event experienced in the past, but the event itself. Representation of the real without mediation is present in the testimony of traumatic situations. The Yad Vashem archives and memorial in Jerusalem contains the largest amount of information on the Holocaust in the world, and nowadays plays an important political role in denouncing and condemning those involved in the Hitler regime.
Various other archives have a similar role. The International Rehabilitation Council for Torture Victims in Copenhagen also houses an important collection of statements and information on human rights violations that have occurred in more recent wars, such as those in Bosnia, Afghanistan and Iraq. Organisations are founded to fight against the arbitrariness of oblivion by recovering names and restoring the facts that can still be remembered. The role of these archives is not to explain what cannot be explained, but to keep alive the memory of what cannot be repeated.
In some cases forgetting may not only be a choice, but also a given fact. Moreover, despite the exceptional nature of traumatic situations, more than a few authors have identified them in contemporary everyday life. Historians working in the field of present-day history, and especially oral history, have been concerned with constructing a space within historical narrative in which subjectivity, feelings and human experience can be valued.
The new historiography gives a voice to those who do not feature in documentary records, enabling group histories to be recovered on a small scale. Through accounts constructed on the basis of the personal trajectory of each individual, which, though partial, contain depth and moral outlines associated with this subjectivity, they seek out elements that have evaded other forms of analysis Thompson, This rift may appear not only in relations between a dominating state and civil society, but also in relations between an inclusive society and minority groups.
He shows that both collaboration and the Vichy government were relegated to the margins of the national memory, forgotten and, worse, concealed Rousso, To the Italian government, Civitella was a symbol of resistance to fascism, and the anniversary of the massacre was commemorated with national honours.
This is not casual read or a holiday book and requires a strong stomach. At the periodicals desk, where I had an additional transaction, another librarian commented on what clearly appeared to be a Nazi tract, from which the green interlibrary loan flag was now flying. Non-Jewish groups Holocaust history: non-Jewish victims Holocaust forgotten The website 'Holocaust history: non-Jewish victims Holocaust forgotten ' is available in both Polish and English versions. The Lochner document with the Armenia quote was also included in the publication of foreign policy documents by the German Foreign Office. View all 14 comments. With just a few pages into the book I realised I had not read a better introduction to the complexities and evolution of what became the final solution.
However, Portelli discovered an underground memory in the statements of local residents that had been hidden and was very different from the official memory. Surviving local residents felt that the massacre was due to the irresponsibility of partisan militants, who had killed some German officers and left the population exposed to Nazi vengeance. This local memory did not fit with the official memory which praised the heroism of the small town and was therefore concealed Portelli, Basing his arguments in particular on Nietzsche, Ansart proposes to researchers a history of resentment, a history which takes into account, for example, the experience of humiliation and fear as driving forces behind human action and reaction.
We would now like to comment on some of these works — several of which are still in the research and conclusion stages. Both emerged out of a concern to salvage what had not been recorded for history and which, in most cases, relied only on testimony and oral statements to be remembered and understood. She reproduces the statements of women who had been in concentration camps, worked for the resistance and lived through civil wars, bringing to history a whole aspect of human experience in times of war and domination that had previously been unknown and hidden.
Events and experiences involving rape, clandestine childbirth, abortion, care of the sick, protection of children, the hoarding of food, making of clothes or even disguises, and improvised ways of coping with cold and hunger in times of extreme scarcity now enter history. Other statements by women describe the experiences of clandestine love , kisses exchanged across the barricades, hasty marriages, lonely pregnancies, the joy of successful births in precarious circumstances.
The romantic side to political activities in times of war is brought to light by oral accounts and statements by women. In short, they reveal a wide range of experiences and ways of confronting war and tyranny that were previously unknown and had not appeared in historical accounts and records, or even in the statements of individuals who had lived through these situations. Most of these statements had been provided by men and were based on male experiences in prisons, concentration camps and resistance groups.
Only in this way was it possible for researchers to bring a dimension of human experience and existence to history that had been totally ignored because it was based on a female subjectivity excluded from historical narrative. He focuses explicitly on the work of the Truth and Reconciliation Commission, whose objective was to repair the damage caused to victims and develop a human rights policy Grossman, These people were called upon to make statements and describe before the Commission what they had suffered.
Whilst not disagreeing with the importance of this work, Grossman draws attention to the fact that countless people, particularly young people, wanted to make statements to the Commission, but not as victims. They wanted to record their achievements in the struggle, the resistance, the fight.
As Keith noted, the Nazi party viewed Darwinism and Christianity as polar opposites. The opposition to religion was a prominent feature of German science, and thus later German political theory, from its very beginning.
Furthermore, Nazi and Christian concepts are incompatible because Christianity is built:. A literature review shows that German racism would have had a difficult time existing if the historical creation position, void of race curse theories, had been widely accepted.
Relatively few scientific studies exist which directly deal with Darwinism and Nazism—and many evolutionists avoid the subject because evolution is inescapably selectionist. One of the best reviews of Darwinism and Nazism documents clearly that Nazism felt confident that their programs of extermination was firmly based on evolution science. Paraphrasing the words of Hitler, those who ignore the lessons of history are condemned to repeat it. Nonetheless, these persons were few and the theories that were developed seem to be mostly in response to preconceived ideas or to justify existing social systems.
From our modern perspective, many persons have concluded that World War II and its results ensued from the ideology of an evil madman and his equally evil administration. He felt that many years hence, the world would be extremely grateful to him and his programs which lifted the human race to genetically higher levels of evolution by stopping race pollution by preventing mixed marriages with inferior races. An interesting question is, would the Nazi holocaust have occurred if this ban had remained in effect?
Haeckel was at the center of this fight and garnered much support from:. The well documented influence of Darwinism on the holocaust has been greatly downplayed by the mass media. Current writers often gloss over, totally ignore, or even distort the close connection between Darwinism and the Nazi race theory and the policies it produced, but as Stein admonishes:. He adds that there is also little doubt that this contemporary self-protecting attitude is based on a:.
Darwin was not just responding to his culture as often alleged. Nazism is often used as a warning example of the danger of religious zeal, yet only occasionally is the key role of the eugenics of Francis Galton, based on the theory of natural selection espoused by his cousin, Charles Darwin, mentioned.
Eugenics is still alive in the world today. Not to do so will result in the eventual doom of the human race. Firmly convinced that Darwinian evolution was true, Hitler saw himself as the modern saviour of mankind. By breeding a superior race, the world would look upon him as the man who pulled humanity up to a higher level of evolutionary development. If Darwinism is true, Hitler was our saviour and we have crucified him. As a result, the human race will grievously suffer. If Darwinism is not true, what Hitler attempted to do must be ranked with the most heinous crimes of history and Darwin as the father of one of the most destructive philosophies of history.
An assessment by Youngson concluded that the application of Darwinism to society, called eugenics, produced one of the most tragic scientific blunders of all time:. I wish to thank Wayne Frair, Ph. We have supplied this link to an article on an external website in good faith.
But we cannot assume responsibility for, nor be taken as endorsing in any way, any other content or links on any such site. Even the article we are directing you to could, in principle, change without notice on sites we do not control. Also Available in:. This article is from Journal of Creation 13 2 —, August Browse our latest digital issue Subscribe.
Related Media. References Chase, A. Return to text. Haeckel, E. Chamberlain, H. Aycoberry, P. Beyerchen, A. Stein, G. Tobach, E. Ludmerer, K. Keith, A. Tenenbaum, J. Stein, Ref. The Nuremberg Trials, Vol. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.
Poliakov, L. Clark, Ref. Hickman, R. Tenenbaum, Ref. Wilder-Smith, B. Jackel, E. Rauschning, H. Keith, Ref. Schleunes, K. To what extent was the Armenian genocide understood as a model by Hitler? In a interview, he told a German newspaper editor that when deciding Germany's future, one should "[t]hink of the biblical deportations and the massacres of the Middle Ages Rosenberg refers to them and remember the extermination of the Armenians. The influential Foreign Affairs journal published an article in the s stating, "Just as in Italy since , and as in Germany since early in the present year, the conduct of political affairs in Turkey rests today on the personality of a leader.
The fate of the Armenians was also understood within Nazi ideology. His work Foundations of the Nineteenth Century sold , copies by and secured his fame in Germany. In , leading Nazi theorist Alfred Rosenberg had published a booklet calling Chamberlain the "apostle and founder of a German future. Scheubner-Richter had been the German vice-consul in Erzerum and documented the planning and implementation of the murder of Armenians by the Young Turks in the name of Islam and pan-Turkic ideology.
Scheubner-Richter's relationship to Hitler was so close that he was killed standing next to Hitler and Rosenberg during the failed Munich "Beer Hall" putsch of Hitler then dedicated the first part of Mein Kampf to his "irreplaceable" fallen comrade. Prior to his death, Scheubner-Richter urged that Germany be "cleansed" of alien peoples by "ruthless" measures.
Other high-ranking Nazis were also well-placed to learn how the Armenian genocide occurred and to inform Hitler. Hans von Seeckt was chief of the Ottoman General Staff in and and "laid the groundwork for the later emergence of the Third Reich's Wehrmacht" and "embraced Hitler and his ideology.
The similarity of the genocidal methods employed by the Nazis and the Ottomans is also inescapable. Parallels between Ottoman and Nazi theory and practice include the central place of race in the self-conception of the fascist elites and the notion of relocating ethnic minorities to reservations.
Hitler often expressed his belief that race was the dominant independent variable in history and that it had to be dealt with directly by any ethnonationalist leader who wanted to be successful. Both the Ottomans and the Nazis also used the concept of ethnic "cleaning" or "cleansing.
Numerous ideological and political influences led from the Armenian genocide to the rape of Poland and the Holocaust. Hitler compared the two cases in his speech, which, like most evidence that the Holocaust took place, was not relied upon in the tribunal's judgment. London: Routledge, , p. D, vol. Lochner, What about Germany? London: Hodder and Stoughton, , p. Lowry, "The U. Printing Office, , p. Congress and Adolf Hitler on the Armenians," pp. Congress and Adolf Hitler on the Armenians," p.
Littell, eds. August Tauris, , pp. Barrett and William E. Jackson, " Preface ," in Nazi Conspiracy and Aggression, vol. New York: John Day, , p. London: John Day, , p. Tauris, , p. London: J. Lane, , pp.