breaautospa.com/plaquenil-400mg-dosage.php The archaeological record of country after country tells the same sad story. The tragedy opens with a scene showing a rich and varied population of large animals, without any trace of Homo sapiens. In scene two, humans appear, evidenced by a fossilised bone, a spear point, or perhaps a campfire. Scene three quickly follows, in which men and women occupy centre-stage and most large animals, along with many smaller ones, have gone. The next major landmark in human-animal relations was the agricultural revolution: the process by which we turned from nomadic hunter-gatherers into farmers living in permanent settlements.
It involved the appearance of a completely new life-form on Earth: domesticated animals. Yet, with the passing of the centuries, this novel life-form became the norm. Consider the chicken, for example. Ten thousand years ago, it was a rare bird that was confined to small niches of South Asia. Today, billions of chickens live on almost every continent and island, bar Antarctica. The domesticated chicken is probably the most widespread bird in the annals of planet Earth. If you measure success in terms of numbers, chickens, cows and pigs are the most successful animals ever.
Alas, domesticated species paid for their unparalleled collective success with unprecedented individual suffering. The animal kingdom has known many types of pain and misery for millions of years. Yet the agricultural revolution created completely new kinds of suffering, ones that only worsened with the passing of the generations.
At first sight, domesticated animals may seem much better off than their wild cousins and ancestors. Wild buffaloes spend their days searching for food, water and shelter, and are constantly threatened by lions, parasites, floods and droughts. Domesticated cattle, by contrast, enjoy care and protection from humans. People provide cows and calves with food, water and shelter, they treat their diseases, and protect them from predators and natural disasters.
True, most cows and calves sooner or later find themselves in the slaughterhouse.
Yet does that make their fate any worse than that of wild buffaloes? Is it better to be devoured by a lion than slaughtered by a man? Are crocodile teeth kinder than steel blades?
What makes the existence of domesticated farm animals particularly cruel is not just the way in which they die but above all how they live. Two competing factors have shaped the living conditions of farm animals : on the one hand, humans want meat, milk, eggs, leather, animal muscle-power and amusement; on the other, humans have to ensure the long-term survival and reproduction of farm animals. Theoretically, this should protect animals from extreme cruelty. If a farmer milks his cow without providing her with food and water, milk production will dwindle, and the cow herself will quickly die.
Unfortunately, humans can cause tremendous suffering to farm animals in other ways, even while ensuring their survival and reproduction. The root of the problem is that domesticated animals have inherited from their wild ancestors many physical, emotional and social needs that are redundant in farms.
Farmers routinely ignore these needs without paying any economic price. They lock animals in tiny cages, mutilate their horns and tails, separate mothers from offspring, and selectively breed monstrosities. The animals suffer greatly, yet they live on and multiply. The theory of evolution maintains that all instincts and drives have evolved in the interest of survival and reproduction.
The Factory Acts also sought to ameliorate the conditions under which mill-children worked with requirements on ventilation, sanitation, and guarding of machinery. Introduction of the ten-hour day proved to have none of the dire consequences predicted by its opponents, and its apparent success effectively ended theoretical objections to the principle of factory legislation; from the s onwards more industries were brought within the Factory Act.
Although the Act included some hygiene requirements for all textile mills, it was largely concerned with the employment of apprentices; it left the employment of 'free' non-indentured children unregulated. It allowed but did not require local magistrates to enforce compliance with its requirements, and therefore went largely unenforced.
As the first attempt to improve the lot of factory children, it is often seen as paving the way for future Factory Acts. At best, it only partially paved the way; its restriction to apprentices where there was a long tradition of legislation meant that it was left to later Factory Acts to establish the principle of intervention by Parliament on humanitarian grounds on worker welfare issues against the "laissez-faire" political and economic orthodoxy of the age which held that to be ill-advised.
Under the Act, regulations and rules came into force on 2 December and applied to all textile mills and factories employing three or more apprentices or twenty employees. The buildings must have sufficient windows and openings for ventilation, and should be cleaned at least twice yearly with quicklime and water; this included ceilings and walls. Each apprentice was to be given two sets of clothing, suitable linen, stockings, hats, and shoes, and a new set each year thereafter.
Apprentices could not work during the night between 9 pm and 6 am , and their working hours could not exceed 12 hours a day, excluding the time taken for breaks. All apprentices were to be educated in reading, writing and arithmetic for the first four years of their apprenticeship. The Act specified that this should be done every working day within usual working hours but did not state how much time should be set aside for it. Educational classes should be held in a part of the mill or factory designed for the purpose.
Every Sunday, for one hour, apprentices were to be taught the Christian religion; every other Sunday, divine service should be held in the factory, and every month the apprentices should visit a church. They should be prepared for confirmation in the Church of England between the ages of 14 and 18 and must be examined by a clergyman at least once a year. Male and female apprentices were to sleep separately and not more than two per bed. Local magistrates had to appoint two inspectors known as 'visitors' to ensure that factories and mills were complying with the Act; one was to be a clergyman and the other a Justice of the Peace , neither to have any connection with the mill or factory.
The visitors had the power to impose fines for non-compliance and the authority to visit at any time of the day to inspect the premises. The Act was to be displayed in two places in the factory. III c66 stated that no children under 9 were to be employed and that children aged 9—16 years were limited to 12 hours' work per day.
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It was seen through Parliament by Sir Robert Peel ; it had its origins in a draft prepared by Robert Owen in but the Act that emerged in was much watered-down from Owen's draft. It was also effectively unenforceable; enforcement was left to local magistrates, but they could only inspect a mill if two witnesses had given sworn statements that the mill was breaking the Act.
An amending Act 60 Geo. When any accident disabled a factory as had just happened at New Lanark , nightworking in the rest of the works by those who had previously worked in the affected factory was permitted until the accident was made good. In John Cam Hobhouse introduced a Bill to allow magistrates to act on their own initiative, and to compel witnesses to attend hearings; noting that so far there had been only two prosecutions under the Act.
He doubted whether shortening the hours of work would be injurious even to the interests of the manufacturers; as the children would be able, while they were employed, to pursue their occupation with greater vigour and activity. At the same time, there was nothing to warrant a comparison with the condition of the negroes in the West Indies. The Act had specified that a mealbreak of an hour should be taken between 11 a.
A parent's assertion of a child's age was sufficient, and relieved employers of any liability should the child in fact be younger. JPs who were millowners or the fathers or sons of millowners could not hear complaints under the Act. IV c In Hobhouse introduced a further bill with - he told the Commons-  the support of the leading manufacturers who felt that "unless the House should step forward and interfere so as to put an end to the night-work in the small factories where it was practised, it would be impossible for the large and respectable factories which conformed to the existing law to compete with them.
Night working was forbidden for anyone under 21 and if a mill had been working at night the onus of proof was on the millowner to show nobody under-age had been employed. The limitation of working hours to twelve now applied up to age eighteen. Complaints could only be pursued if made within three weeks of the offence; on the other hand JPs who were the brothers of millowners were now also debarred from hearing Factory Act cases.
Hobhouse's claim of general support was optimistic; the Bill originally covered all textile mills; the Act as passed again applied only to cotton mills. Dissatisfied with the outcome of Hobhouse's efforts, in Michael Thomas Sadler introduced a Bill extending the protection existing Factory Acts gave to children working in the cotton industry to those in other textile industries, and reducing to ten per day the working hours of children in the industries legislated for.
A network of 'Short Time Committees' had grown up in the textile districts of Yorkshire and Lancashire, working for a 'ten-hour day Act ' for children, with many millhands in the Ten Hour Movement hoping that this would in practice also limit the adult working day. It will only spur them on to greater exertions, and would undoubtedly lead to certain success "  .
Sadler's Bill when introduced indeed corresponded closely to the aims of the Short Time Committees. Hobhouse's ban on nightwork up to 21 was retained; no child under nine was to be employed; and the working day for under-eighteens was to be no more than ten hours eight on Saturday. These restrictions were to apply across all textile industries. Meanwhile, petitions both for and against the Bill had been presented to the Commons; both Sir Robert Peel not the originator of the bill, but his son, the future Prime Minister and Sir George Strickland had warned that the Bill as it stood was too ambitious: more MPs had spoken for further factory legislation than against, but many supporters wanted the subject to be considered by a Select Committee.
Sadler had resisted this: "if the present Bill was referred to one, it would not become a law this Session, and the necessity of legislating was so apparent, that he was unwilling to submit to the delay of a Committee, when he considered they could obtain no new evidence on the subject". Sadler was made chairman of the Committee, which allowed him to make his case by hearing evidence from witnesses of Sadler's selection, on the understanding that opponents of the Bill or of some feature of it would then have their innings.
Sadler, however, was not an MP in the next session: in the first election for the newly enfranchised two member constituency of Leeds he was beaten into third place by Thomas Babington Macaulay a Whig politician of national standing and John Marshall , the son of one of Leeds' leading millowners. Casting around for a new parliamentary advocate for factory reform, the short-time movement eventually secured the services of Lord Ashley , eldest son of the 6th Earl of Shaftesbury.
By the time the new parliament met, public opinion especially outside the textile districts had been powerfully affected by 'the report of Mr Sadler's Committee'. Extracts from this began to appear in newspapers in January and painted a picture of the life of a mill-child as one of systematic over-work and systematic brutality. The conclusion many papers drew was that Sadler's Bill should be revived and passed. Sadler and the Short Time Committees objected to any further fact-finding  and attempted to obstruct the work of the Commissioners.
This toured the textile districts and made extensive investigations. It wasted little time in doing so, and even less in considering its report; as with other Whig Commissions of the period it was suspected to have had a good idea of its recommendations before it started work. Major millowners such as the Strutts did not tolerate it and indeed were distinguished by their assiduous benevolence to their employees.
Working conditions for mill-children were preferable to those in other industries: after a visit to the coal mine at Worsley one of the Commission staff had written "as this was said to be the best mine in the place, I cannot much err in coming to the conclusion, that the hardest labour in the worst-conducted factory is less hard, less cruel,and less demoralizing than the labour in the best of coal-mines"  : D2, 79— Nonetheless, the Commission reported  : 35—36 that mill children did work unduly long hours, leading to.
IV c was an attempt to establish a regular working day in textile manufacture. The act had the following provisions: . The Act failed to specify whether lunar or calendar months were intended where the word 'monthly' was used, and one clause limited hours of work per week where a daily limit had been intended. The Act had few admirers in the textile districts when it came into force.
The short-time movement objected to its substitution for Ashley's Bill, and hoped to secure a Ten-Hour Bill. Millowners resented and political economists deplored legislatory interference in response to public opinion, and hoped that the Act could soon be repealed completely or in part. In , the first report of the Factory Inspectors noted that the education clauses were totally impracticable, and relay working with a double set of children, both sets working eight hours; the solution which allowed Althorp's Bill to outbid Ashley's in the apparent benefit to children was difficult if not impracticable, there not being enough children.
Three of the four inspectors had recommended in their first report that all children 12 or older should be allowed to work twelve hours a day. The Bill passed its second reading by a majority of only two - a moral defeat for a government measure.
Furthermore, although Poulett Thomson had opened the debate by saying that "at the present moment he was unwilling to re-open the whole factory question", Peel had said he would vote for the second reading, not because he supported the bill, but because its committee stage would allow the introduction of additional amendments to factory legislation.
In Poulett Thomson announced his intention to bring in a factory bill; consequently Ashley, who had intended to introduce a ten-hour bill, dropped this, promising instead a ten-hour amendment to the government bill. Children in silk mills were not to work more than ten hours a day but this was not backed up by any certification of age. Otherwise, the bill made no changes to age limits or hours of work, but repealed the education clauses of the Act, replacing them with literacy tests.
After a transitional period, children who could not read the New Testament were not to be employed more than nine hours a day; children who could not read an easy reader to be published by the Home Secretary could not be employed. On 22 June, when the government intended to progress a bill on Irish tithes, Ashley forestalled them, moving the second reading of the factory bill.
He complained of the evasive conduct of ministers and government apathy and complacency on factory reform. Ashley later attacked the government and its complacency and connivance at the shortcomings in the current Factory Act identified by the government's own Factory Inspectors: . In the session, Fox Maule revived the Bill with alterations. The literacy tests were gone, and the education clauses restored. The only other significant changes in the scope of the legislation were that working extra hours to recover lost time was now only permitted for water-powered mills, and magistrates could not countersign surgeon's certificates if they were mill-owners or occupiers or father, son, or brother of a mill-owner or occupier.
Details of enforcement were altered; there was no longer any provision for inspectors to be magistrates ex officio , sub-inspectors were to have nearly the same enforcement powers as inspectors; unlike inspectors they could not examine witnesses on oath, but they now had the same right of entry into factory premises as inspectors. The bill, introduced in February, did not enter its committee stage until the start of July  In committee, a ten-hour amendment was defeated , but Ashley moved and carried an amendment removing the special treatment of silk mills.
No attempt was made to introduce a factory bill in ; Ashley obtained a Select Committee on the working of the existing Factory Act,  which took evidence, most notably from members of the Factory Inspectorate,  throughout the session with a view to a new bill being introduced in The Whigs were defeated in the general election , and Sir Robert Peel formed a Conservative government. Ashley let it be known that he had declined office under Peel because Peel would not commit himself not to oppose a ten-hour bill; Ashley therefore wished to retain freedom of action on factory issues.
The Royal Commission had investigated not only the working hours and conditions of the children, but also their moral state. It had found much of concern in their habits and language, but the greatest concern was that "the means of secular and religious instruction.. Responding, Graham stressed that the issue was not a party one and was borne out on this by the other speakers in the debate ; although the problem was a national one, the government would for the moment bring forward measures only for the two areas of education in which the state already had some involvement; the education of workhouse children and the education of factory children.
The measures he announced related to England and Wales; Scotland had an established system of parochial schools run by its established church, with little controversy, since in Scotland there was no dissent on doctrine, only on questions of discipline. In the 'education clauses' of his Factory Education Bill of , he proposed to make government loans to a new class of government factory schools effectively under the control of the Church of England and the local magistrates.
The default religious education in these schools would be Anglican, but parents would be allowed to opt their children out of anything specifically Anglican; if the opt-out was exercised, religious education would be as in the best type of Dissenter-run schools. Once a trust school was open in a factory district, factory children in that district would have to provide a certificate that they were being educated at it or at some other school certified as 'efficient'. The 'labour clauses' forming the other half of the bill were essentially a revival of Fox Maule's draft; children could work only in the morning or in the afternoon, but not both.
There were two significant differences; the working day for children was reduced to six and a half hours, and the minimum age for factory work would be reduced to eight. Other clauses increased penalties and assisted enforcement. A Second Reading debate was held to flesh out major issues before going into committee. The provisions for appointment of schoolmasters were also criticised; as they stood they effectively excluded Dissenters. Out of Parliament, the debate was less temperate; objections that the Bill had the effect of strengthening the Church became objections that it was a deliberate attack on Dissent, that its main purpose was to attack Dissent, and that the Royal Commission had deliberately and grossly defamed the population of the manufacturing districts to give a spurious pretext for an assault on Dissent.
Lord John Russell drafted resolutions calling for modification of the bill along the lines suggested in Parliament;  the resolutions were denounced as inadequate by the extra-parliamentary opposition. Voting on this Bill was not on party lines, the issue revealing both parties to be split into various factions. On clause 8, both 'ten' and 'twelve' hours were rejected with exactly the same members voting because five members voted against both 'ten' and 'twelve'. However, the new bill left the definition of 'night' unaltered and so gave no opportunity for redefinition and Lord Ashley's amendment to limit the working day for women and young persons to ten hours was defeated heavily against, for ,  it having been made clear that the Ministers would resign if they lost the vote.
After the collapse of the Peel administration which had resisted any reduction in the working day to less than 12 hours, a Whig administration under Lord John Russell came to power. The new Cabinet contained supporters and opponents of a ten-hour day and Lord John himself favoured an eleven-hour day. This law also known as the Ten Hour Act limited the work week in textile mills and other textile industries except lace and silk production for women and children under 18 years of age.
Each work week contained 63 hours effective 1 July and was reduced to 58 hours effective 1 May In effect, this law limited the workday for all millhands to 10 hours. This law was successfully passed due to the contributions of the Ten Hours Movement. This campaign was established during the s and was responsible for voicing demands towards limiting the work week in textile mills. The core of the movement was the 'Short Time Committees' set up by millworkers and sympathisers in the textile districts, but the main speakers for the cause were Richard Oastler who led the campaign outside Parliament and Lord Ashley, 7th Earl of Shaftesbury who led the campaign inside Parliament.
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John Fielden , although no orator, was indefatigable in his support of the cause, giving generously of his time and money and - as the senior partner in one of the great cotton firms - vouching for the reality of the evils of a long working day and the practicality of shortening it.