This would mean that for a 10,year-old universe, that anything we see happening beyond about 10, light-years away is actually part of a gigantic picture show of things that have not actually happened, showing us objects which may not even exist. To explain this problem further, consider an exploding star supernova at, say, an accurately measured , light-years away.
Remember we are using this explanation in a 10,year-old universe. As the astronomer on Earth watches this exploding star, he is not just receiving a beam of light. The light carries information recording an apparently real event. If it had started from the star—assuming that there really was such a star—it would still be 90, light years away from Earth.
To create such a detailed series of signals in light beams reaching Earth, signals which seem to have come from a series of real events but in fact did not, has no conceivable purpose. This would be a strange deception. An obvious solution would be a higher speed of light in the past, allowing the light to cover the same distance more quickly. This seemed at first glance a too-convenient ad hoc explanation.
Then some years ago, Australian Barry Setterfield raised the possibility to a high profile by showing that there seemed to be a decreasing trend in the historical observations of the speed of light c over the past years or so. Setterfield and his later co-author Trevor Norman produced much evidence in favor of this theory.
The biggest difficulty, however, is with certain physical consequences of the theory. If c has declined the way Setterfield proposed, these consequences should still be discernible in the light from distant galaxies but they are apparently not. Nevertheless, the c -decay theory stimulated much thinking about the issues. Creationist physicist Dr.
Russell Humphreys says that he spent a year on and off trying to get the declining c theory to work, but without success. It passed peer review, by qualifying reviewers, for the Pittsburgh International Conference on creationism. This sort of development, in which one creationist theory, c -decay, is overtaken by another, is a healthy aspect of science. The basic biblical framework is non-negotiable, as opposed to the changing views and models of fallible people seeking to understand the data within that framework evolutionists also often change their ideas on exactly how things have made themselves, but never whether they did.
Let us briefly give a hint as to how the new cosmology seems to solve the starlight problem before explaining some preliminary items in a little more detail. Consider that the time taken for something to travel a given distance is the distance divided by the speed it is traveling. That is:. When this is applied to light from distant stars, the time calculates out to be millions of years. Some have sought to challenge the distances, but this is a very unlikely answer.
Astronomers use many different methods to measure the distances, and no informed creationist astronomer would claim that any errors would be so vast that billions of light-years could be reduced to thousands, for example. There is good evidence that our own Milky Way galaxy is , light years across! If the speed of light c has not changed, the only thing left untouched in the equation is time itself. Two things are believed with experimental support to distort time in relativity theory—one is speed and the other is gravity. This effect has been measured experimentally, many times.
Clocks at the top of tall buildings, where gravity is slightly less, run faster than those at the bottom, just as predicted by the equations of general relativity GR.
When a concentration of matter is very large dense enough , the gravitational distortion can also be so immense that any light rays trying to escape the enormous pull of gravity bend back on themselves. At the event horizon, time literally stands still. In other words, that it has a center and an edge—that if you were to travel off into space, you would eventually come to a place beyond which there was no more matter. In this cosmology, the Earth is near the center. That is, they make arbitrary assumption without any scientific necessity that the universe has no boundaries—no edge and no center.
In this assumed universe, every galaxy would be surrounded by galaxies spread evenly in all directions on a large enough scale , and so, therefore, all the net gravitational forces cancel out. However, if the universe has boundaries, then there is a net gravitational effect toward the center.
Clocks at the edge would be running at different rates to clocks on the Earth. In other words, it is no longer enough to say God made the universe in six days. He certainly did, but six days by which clock? As matter passed out of this event horizon, the horizon itself had to shrink—eventually to nothing. Therefore, at one point this Earth relative to a point far away from it would have been virtually frozen in time. This massive gravitational time dilation would seem to be a scientific inevitability if a bounded universe expanded significantly.
Galaxies would also appear to be rotating faster. However, if an observer in deep space was out there measuring the speed of light, to him it would still only be traveling at c. Humphreys, Starlight and Time , which also includes reprints of his technical papers showing the equations. It is fortunate that creationists did not invent such concepts such as gravitational time dilation, black and white holes, event horizons and so on, or we would likely be accused of manipulating the data to solve the problem.
The interesting thing about this cosmology is that it is based upon mathematics and physics totally accepted by all cosmologists general relativity , and it accepts along with virtually all physicists that there has been expansion in the past though not from some imaginary tiny point. However, not all iwi iwi tribes celebrate at the same time. A cluster is a group of stars that are near each other in space. When seen from Earth, the stars in a constellation appear to be close together in a pattern, but they might actually be far from each other.
If the Stars are Gods is a science fiction novel by American writers Gregory Benford and Gordon Eklund, published in It is an expansion of the Nebula . Start by marking “If the Stars Are Gods” as Want to Read: Earth sent Bradley Reynolds, 52, officially retired, a man who knew the stars as well as any man could. As a science fiction author, Benford is best known for the Galactic Center Saga novels, beginning with In the Ocean of.
There are about stars in the Matariki cluster, but only six or seven are visible without a telescope. The location of Puanga and Matariki in the mid-winter sky.
From early June, before sunrise, look to the north-east horizon. Trace a line northwards from the three stars of Tautoru. Look for a faint sparkle of tiny dots, about the same width as Tautoru is long. This is the Matariki star cluster. Matariki can also be seen during the summer months in this location of the sky after sunset. If you drove there in a car at a speed of kilometres an hour, you would arrive in 4.
The star cluster is visible to the naked eye from most parts of our planet, and has many different names. Learn about the difference between Matariki and Puanga.
Do you know what that means? Read the Book of Enoch. Elsewhere birds or other animals—such as the dog especially in Africa , who is closely allied to the hearth fire—are the bringers of fire. Close Player. So, Brother Guy, when you said a minute ago — when you talked about working with science and that you do this because of the beauty of the creation — I mean somebody in this conversation, one of us mentioned Haiti, as well. Receive the OpenMind newsletter with all the latest contents published on our website Find out more here. You know why we call it dark energy?
Astronomers explain Puanga and Matarik i.