http://unmardeposibilidades.es/modules/fiji/75.php Purtuttavia anche lei e qualcosa, sventuratamente, lei e un forestiero, uno che e sempre di troppo e sempre fra i piedi. Gli ultimi vent'anni del secondo millennio rappresentano per la letteratura e la cultura italiane un periodo di interessanti trasformazioni, sedimentazioni e mescolanze. Ad essere fecondato dal rapido giustapporsi di sollecitazioni interne ed esterne e stato senza dubbio il dibattito intellettuale, nel quale si e assistito ad una esplosione di interventi critici e filosofici che hanno a loro volta portato a vivaci controversie tra i vari esponenti dell'intellighentzia italiana.
Si rammenti ad esempio la polemica suscitata dalla filosofia del "pensiero debole", sintesi ideologica e contenuta in due importanti volumi curati da Gianni Vattimo e Pier Aldo Rovatti e da Alessandro del Lago e dallo stesso Rovatti Ad una comune radice postmoderna, ma con un peso specifico proprio ed una linea di sviluppo autonoma, si collega la riflessione filosofica delle studiose del gruppo veronese Diotima, Adriana Cavarero e e Luisa Muraro e Le loro pratiche teoriche, scaturite nel contesto del Collettivo milanese facente capo alla Libreria delle Donne, hanno prodotto la elaborazione del concetto della differenza sessuale e hanno portato al recupero di una prospettiva epistemologica fondata sull'ordine simbolico della madre.
Tra gli anni '80 e '90 si e poi verificato un fenomeno di grande rilevanza per la societa italiana, l'afflusso e lo stabilirsi, entro i confini del paese, di un numeroso contingente di stranieri, extra-comunitari attratti dall'apertura dei confini europei, e immigrati giunti dai paesi satelliti dell'ex Unione Sovietica. Tra questi si sono trovati anche coloro i quali, esuli o esiliati, fuggivano dalla propria terra per motivi politici.
Diplomati o laureati, generalmente istruiti, questi nuovi migranti hanno cominciato a far sentire la loro presenza nella societa e cultura italiane. This workshop demonstrates the of psychodrama and traditional Chinese medicine to facilitate healing. Spontaneity which is liberated through the act of play is the main source fort he theraputic process.
But in psychodrama creative language of the theatric play is not just a theraputic tool, we can observe a therapeutic change as a creative act in which the protagonist produces something new, in a process of own change. In the workshop the authosrs will demonstrate the way of the use of psychodrama method in a creative process and vice-versa, the proces of theraputic development of the protagonist will be observed through the creative act of theatric play.
After the war in ex Yugoslavia a number of war veterans which suffered from PTSP participated in group therapeutic treatment in a groups where the members were from the different sides from the war conflict. This film is based on the real-life experience of the war veterans. In teh movie they are engaged in a psychodrama group, in which are present ex-soldiers from the Serbian, Bosnian and Croat army. In the film the psychodrama methosd is the main tool of the therapeutic and reconciliation process for those men.
At the same time psychodrama was used in the preparation process for the movie. The film won a number of prices in different international film festivals: Carlove Vary, Bratislava, Rome, Istanbul, Zagreb, Ljubljana…After the projection of the movie the audience will be invited to a discussion at round table.
Sociopsychodrama and Literature? What do they have in common? Why do we sympathise with figures, characters or items from literature? What can we learn about ourselves from stories? The knowledge and research about what? Sociopsychodrama and literature can be linked together. Exploring literature in a sociopsychodramatic way allows us a very personal, lively and pleasurable approach to stories with their characters.
Simultaneously, we can get surprisingly new insights about ourselves: There are hundreds of ways of understanding and interpreting literary works. The way how we fill the gaps a text may contain and how we interpret the multiple meanings that each piece of literature has, reveals much of our personality. In the workshop we intend to show how we can express ourselves via literature and how the playful exploration of texts allows us to widen our scope.
We wish to show as well that this approach enables readers to deepen the understanding of texts. Finally, we will discuss how you can work with this knowledge in language lessons, lessons of literature and also in self-experience groups. We will investigate various dimensions of forgiveness, including self-forgiveness, our need to be forgiven as well as our need to forgive. For each of these dimensions, we will use guided meditation, sociometric exploration, psychodrama and group sharing as a support in our inquiry. The intention of this workshop is to broaden and deepen our capacity to explore our relationship with forgiveness.
This may allow us to know more freedom, spontaneity and joy. At the workshop, I will explain approach to working with trauma based on the idea of helping the client complete psycho-physiological reactions that have occurred during the initial traumatic episode. I will present four types of psycho-physiological reactions and how to work them. In the second part of the workshop, I will show how this works in practice.
This workshop introduces the latest scientific developments in Transgenerational studies and participants will have the opportunity of experiencing and practicing Transgenerational therapy tools and techniques. Future generations preserve their loyalty and deal with unfinished business by accommodating to dysfunctional patterns in the family of origin and re-enacting similar life scripts. Some of the clinical tools and techniques which will be demonstrated during this workshop comprise the Genosociogram, the Family Atom, the use of Toys, Incognito Auxiliaries and Psychogenealogy exercises.
She is experienced individual, group and educational therapist. She wrote and edited books and articles on the topic of Sociodrama and Psychogenealogy. Research has shown that women are more likely to survive a life-threatening crisis than men. Currently, in all parts of the world, women tend to live longer than men.
Of course, There are some biological and non-biological keys. Biological processes, such as sex, menstruation, breastfeeding and even pregnancy, were considered disgusting. Women can be forced to cover their bodies and faces and make them live as shameful beings without education or power. However, most maintain an inspiring energy source towards others beyond cultural and socioeconomic differences. Our main objective would be to answer the following question: Could we deepen together what kind of emotions, impulses, strengths, sensations push and reconstruct women to survive?
Dando vita ai vari personaggi delle storie, i membri di un gruppo sono invitati ad entrare nei panni di quei personaggi e a rivivere in prima persona le storie che la Bibbia racconta. Psychodrama, sociodrama, creative dramatics and playback can facilitate the healing of wounded children.
The focus of this workshop will be on group work with children, ages five through twelve, who are victims of abandonment, abuse, trauma and domestic violence. This workshop offers specific action structures that create the necessary safe space that allows children to tell their stories, express strong feeling and find new roles.
Participants will experience the use the psychodramatic and sociodramatic empty chair, the use of multiple doubles, structures such an inner and outer circle and the use of fantasy figures to create safety and encourage expression. Decades ago, in his book Who Shall Survive, JL Moreno wrote about the dangers of society becoming filled with robots, people not acting in their spontaneity and creativity.
Today, many of us struggle to maintain authentic connections with others in the face of modern technology and political discord. We often stare numbly at screens or vent our frustrations on social media instead of conversing with the people right in front of us. This workshop will help us explore what blocks us from interconnecting with others in our spontaneity and creativity.
We will explore ways that we can become stuck in cultural conserves, as well as social or emotional ones, and how modern technology can trap us in repetitive, unspontaneous and addictive behavior. After a warm up on the topic of blocks to co-creation and connection, a short psychodrama will be conducted where we will explore ways to expand our social atoms through action. We will end the workshop with sharing and processing. Our goal is to try creative ways of exercising power. Reflect on the difficulties in empowering ourselves and being protagonists of our stories.
Cultivate learning with differences and respect in living with diversities. The director proposes a sociopsicodrama that focuses on the affective-behavioral interchange that prevents co-creation in power relations. In this work, we seek to highlight the hidden and manifest plots in human interaction. The scenes of the participants intersect and, through action techniques, spontaneity-creativity is manifested.
A way can be created for the relationship of creative power, which passes through openness to self-knowledge and through learning in relationships with others in a process of empathetic dialogue. Differences and social inequalities are challenges of the socio-therapists who seek to develop a culture of peace. The sociopsychodrama method has won the promotion of this culture. Research shows, that an important positive factor for resilience are safe relationships. We also know, that children with safe attachment are more socially active and better integrated. They show better social and emotional competences.
How do safe and unsafe attachment styles affect the inner working models and thus the symbol play of children? Psychodrama helps us put the inner fantasies of the child on the outer stage and by co-creating, on the symbol level, to intervene pedagogically and therapeutically. As psychodramatists working with the symbol play of the children, the attachment theory offers an interesting additional interpretation frame to analyze the symbol play of children and to plan our psychodramatic interventions.
In this workshop we will experience in a psychodramatic way the attachment theory and the inner working models. We will translate the theoretical assumptions into the symbol play of children and get a playful insight in the possibilities of attachment orientated psychodramatic interventions. In Fairy tales, feminine and masculine characters are symbols and archetypical images of the dual feminine masculine human universe.
Both contain values and potentialities that help to develop this dimensions in all people of any gender. In this workshop, we invite to immerse in the archetypical dimension of these symbols plenty of strength. Through Symbolic Psychodrama we will go into some parts of chosen Fairy tales, with a new proposal of versions in which the feminine element is rescued. Compassion and cooperation are the skills that helped mankind to survive. But the epidemic capitalism fosters self destroying egoism. In these troubled times violation of human needs seems to be prevalent.
Care work is still delegated to woman, and though we all depend on it, it is publicly and economically neglected, devaluated and exploited as much as subsistence farming. Still men do rarely dare to develop there feminine parts even more than most woman are still afraid to live their masculine parts. It is more than necessary to overcome the dualistic split of personal abilities into male and female.
An american buddhist teacher offers a model of an undomesticated feminine, neither meek nor submissive, but self conscious, fierce, wise and spiritual, an antidote to toxic masculinity. Following her ideas in this workshop we will experience in a psychodramatic way towards an empowered feminine on the basis of wisdom, love and compassion. Maybe it will help us to survive. Tibetans have Prajnjaparamita, the mother of all, who is wisdom and love. I was amazed how easily the method of psychodrama finds its role in in organisational context. Although, people in business prefer not to pronounce the name, but they eagerly participate and enjoy the process and appreciate the outcomes.
About the workshop. The goal of the workshop is to show how to use psychodrama, sociodrama, work with objects and other techniques in team and leadership diagnostics and development. Who would benefit most from the workshop. Psychotherapists — new or experienced — who work or plan working in the organizational context with the method of psychodrama. The family into which we are born is the foundation, the basis for the growth of the person who is today. A family is made up of the feelings and relationships between people — intimacy, caring, loyalty, support and love.
The family is the only place in the world where people are loved not for what they do or give, but for being who they are. During the workshop, we will examine how to survive in the family if it is not secure: how to support and hold, and whether it is possible to increase the security of all family members, so that love could grow and transform. We will also learn whether this will allow to change the existing family patterns.
The workshop employs the methods of psychodrama, family constellations, family systems therapy and Imago and EFT relationship therapy. I am a graduate of the Tallinn Psychodrama Institute. I have also started studying to become a family therapy trainer, and I am a student of systemic family constellation. We realized that as white, middle aged, heterosexual, working men, we where the norm; whenever someone was referring to whom is normal, or stating a difference, it was different from us… or better, it was different from the stereotype we represent.
We decided that this was not only a responsibility, as inclusion, de facto, means that we have to become more inclusive, but also that we where called to live to a standard, a stereotype, that was limiting our authentic and free expression too.
We came to the conclusion that we want more, for ourselves as men, for our organizations and for our communities. Human mind is hypothesis-driven and our observations of the world are strongly shaped by preconceptions. My second argument is that changing the balance between these two processes is important and feasible. Insights from psychodynamic transference and savant syndrome are presented to support these ideas. Uniting these contemporary notions with some essentials of J.
Because spontaneity is formed before having the evidence for its truth or adequacy, it entails, in adults, overcoming apprehensions about acting without a theory in mind. This is what trusting-the-process means and it requires training, which psychodrama fosters on its stage laboratory. The workshop aims to explore the diversity that characterize people, looking for points of contact and connections, countering prejudice and perceived threats.
The dynamics of desire are forged in our childhood experiences and our sexual preferences are shaped by the thrills, challenges and conflicts of our early relationships. Were we held or neglected? Loved or abandoned? Did we experience pleasure or did we learn not to expect too much? What did our family teach us about our body, our gender and our sexuality? Our first attachment experiences provide us with a template for what we expect to happen or will not allow in an intimate relationship.
Sex is a clue on how we deal with closeness, how we deal with control or surrender and how we manage pleasure. It reflects how vulnerable we allow ourselves to be and how we receive, ask, give or take. This experiential workshop is designed to give an opportunity for personal exploration and professional development and will help explore our unique erotic blueprint in a safe and supportive environment. The group will examine different ways of working on, analyzing and contextualizing sexuality in a therapeutic setting. We will explore how to create a safe space to deal with the issues around intimacy, vulnerability, pleasure, desire, identity, sexual orientation, gender, sexual preferences, fantasies and erotic dreams.
The ultimate aim in this workshop will be to initiate a transformative process of self awareness so as to playfully rekindle our creativity and desire. Learning Objectives: After attending this workshop, participants will be able to: 1. Describe the alternative action methods presented that could be applied among the physically impaired population; 2.
Apply the alternative action methods appropriate for use among the physically impaired population. This Workshop aims to present methodology for offering psychodrama to people with mobility impairment — inherited or acquired through accident, illness or with age problems. Applying action methods among the physically impaired population can be considered difficult or impossible; therefore, this large diverse group is often excluded from the benefits of the powerful method of psychodrama. The author of this workshop believes that psychodrama and sociometry have a lot to offer to people with a mobility impairment, with the help of props, imagination and unique adaptations of the method.
The creativity of the director and the richness of the method can offer alternative ways to overcome the physical limitations. One of J. Moreno, , p. People with mobility impairment are a specifically diverse group of our society and creating a space for their culture in the safe environment of a small group is a healing experience in itself e.
Often times, telling and hearing personal stories, the group members would easily discover a topic that connects them in their social and cultural roles and the group would benefit from a sociodrama. The use of music adds a new dimension to the drama. In the moment it arouses feelings and associated memories.
We know that music activates more and different areas of the brain. It may be the reason why warm up and dramatic action is faciclitated.
In this workshop we shall show and experience how we can use music and movement in psychodrama. Participants will get familiar with a tale of Rabbi Nachman of Breslove through Bibliodrama. Learning objective: After attending this workshop participants will be able to : 1. Describe two main archetypes portrait in the tale and identify how they are part of their own life. Describe how the story resonate with J. The laboratory offers some experiences of psychodramatic activity with children, with particular attention to the issues of hyperactivity and the difficulty of controlling body and action.
This will be followed by a reflection on some important concepts in psychodramatic activity with children: spontaneity and control, communicative alternation, the therapeutic function of the peer group, the therapeutic function of the ritual, the intentional alternation of reality and semi-reality, the artistic and symbolic expressiveness.
Apply the social atom on paper and in action for exploring various relationships of clients with eating disorders. The Magic Mirror is a mystical object that is featured in the story of Snow White, a 19th-century German fairy tale, first published by the Brothers Grimm. Moreno created and introduced the social atom in in his book, Who Shall Survive?
At this workshop in a creative way, with the help of Psychodrama — Gestalt techniques, participants will explore the world of their own emotions: their experience and expression. Theoretical framework In order to be able to survive in this world that is constantly changing, we need to adapt. Managing emotions increases the ability to adapt. Emotion is a brief conscious experience characterized by intense mental activity and a high degree of pleasure or displeasure. A Feeling that results in physical and psychological changes that influence our behavior and our adaptation.
Emotions build our reality by showing us the significance of the events around us for us. It is a body reaction to the changes around us. Emotions can also be caused by thoughts. No matter what has caused the emotions they affect our reality as they affect our response to the external environment. In this way, they affect the quality of our lives The quality of our lives is directly related to: Self-Awareness — The ability for recognition of their own emotions and how they affect their thoughts and behavior, and Self-Management — The ability to recognize and control impulsive feelings and behaviors, manage emotions in healthy ways, take initiative, follow through on commitments, and adapt to changing circumstances.
How can the victim-perpetrator splitting be usefully put in scene? The workshop starts with a short introduction to the model of victim-perpetrator splitting. Stressful experiences caused by maltreatment, abuse, long term neglect or loss of important relations require specific emotional processing capacities and have an emotionally high impact.
During this process so called specific inner victim states traumatic states often emerge. At the same time the personality produces as a coping strategy an antagonistic perpetrator state, which function is to stabilize the person psychologically. The basic underlying psychodynamic can be understood with respect to less traumatic personal experiences. This workshop offers besides self experience an approach for psychodramatherapeutic work with sexually abusive young offenders and other perpetrators of violence.
We would like to tell you about our psychodrama work with a class of architects during a post graduate training course developing in the psychological field the ideas of Christopher Alexander. The context in which we approached problems to develop solutions acknowledges and embraces the complexity, uncertainty and change that are ever more prevalent in our world.
We acknowledged that life takes place by continuously adapting the surrounding environment in an uninterrupted everyday process that predominantly occurs in the dimension of the ordinary. There exists in the natural, cultural and physical world a class of phenomena that are beautiful, the beauty of which has essentially to do with our everyday material and spiritual life.
Beautiful, ordinary spaces have a quality whose value, once explored at the appropriate level, belongs to all human beings, and is good for everyone. Because that quality exists, makers can, at each step in the process of change, add to and expand — rather than detract from and reduce — the original quality. Generally, we define and measure the objective quality of the space that emerges at the level where human beings share a common canon of values that belongs to the collective unconscious. We created a series of workshops aimed at raising awareness of our own individual and collective feelings.
This line of activity was designed to provide the knowledge required to observe, understand and act within a complex system where elements have both individual and interrelated value, and where observation, understanding and action are related to our experience of such elements and their interrelation. Feelings are the gateway that connect our deep Self to the external world: learning to name and recognize them, trust them, and live with them is crucial to our ability to work with others and with the structure of the land.
Vorremmo parlarvi del nostro lavoro di psicodramma con una classe di architetti svoltosi durante un corso di formazione post laurea che ha sviluppato in campo psicologico le idee di Christopher Alexander. This dramatic shock leads to an intense process of dissociation: on one hand, the same year-old adult now has to deal with the realisation that his father had not died in the way he had always thought, on the other, the 8-year-old boy, becoming personified again on the imaginal plane, reveals himself as he discovers his father has hung himself.
The adult reflects and understands, empathising with the drama that overtook his father — the child is overcome with despair, anger, incredulity, trying his heart out. He is inconsolable for what has happened. Fragments of memory and images explode in the emotive chaos of attempting a new recomposition of the episode.
The bitter surprise is that everyone knew: his ex-wife, relatives, acquaintances. He realises he has been living in a real-life Truman Show. After years, the lecture will cover who contributed to the journal, who were the publishers, and what followed after. Shakespeare, Hamlet III. That was also the question and the soliloquy of many of my psychosomatic patients.
Is it worth to live this life with all the pain and suffering? In this workshop I will demonstrate how we took arms and turned the hopeless static position into a creative life worth living. In my psychodrama groups the patients played out what was behind their diseases. The spiral process of psychodrama helped to find the origin of the symptom building and the connections with the painful traumatic life events. In this workshop you can experience the method and techniques we developed in my psychosomatic work:. Changing their diet, their location, changing physically :developing lungs from gills,arms from appendages,;walking upright If something needed to change for survival it did.
This workshop aims to draw attention to a social organization which impels us to the search for a type of life organization, for the satisfaction of our attachment needs; recognition; belonging; acceptance; and finally well-being or even happiness, by means of conjugality relations or love relations. On the other hand, is also underlined that this kind of relationships is so conditioned by the religious, legal regulatory bodies, and even by science that becomes possible to typify the outbreaks of malaise leading to support requests. Reference: Moita, G. The dictatorship of love relationships.
Theory and methods and sharing experiences. Figlie, donne, madri. Daughters, women, mothers. Social media languages, trauma dissociation , multiculturality in adolescents groups obstacle creativity, symbolization and the construction of a cohesive dynamic. Cases will be presented in an experiential way. Many handbooks teach us what an effective communication is; many methods train us on how to gain communication skills.
It is also a very important aspect in communication, verbal and not verbal, formal as well as informal, in couples and in groups, in peacetime and in wartime. Emotional communication can prevent, manage, and resolve conflicts. It helps to loosen difficult situations and to get out of the vicious circle of frozen relationships. The psychodramatic process and the technique of the meta-communication will help us to bring out our best resources in conflicts. Feelings are our strength and cogency, our expressivity and reliability in communicating. La comunicazione emotiva: un modo per prevenire, gestire, risolvere i conflitti.
Aiuta a sciogliere situazioni difficili e ad uscire dal circolo vizioso di relazioni cristallizzate. Il processo psicodrammatico e le tecniche di meta-comunicazione ci aiuteranno a individuare le nostre migliori risorse in situazioni di coglitto. Alongside the somatic and social dimensions, the roles in the role-project theory of Analytical Psychodrama for individuation are characterized by the imaginal dimension linked to the exploration of that which is possible, of the meanings of symbols, and of the dialogue between the conscious and the unconscious.
They belong to three categories, i. Ora, se nello Psicodramma Analitico, abitualmente si giocano solo momenti reali attuali o passati, della vita del protagonista, fanno eccezione le Scene Virtuali. Voci negate: un laboratorio tratto da un esperimento di costruzione di uno spettacolo teatrale partendo dalla metodologia psicodrammatica. Denied voices: a workshop based on an experiment in constructing a theatrical performance, starting from the psychodramatic methodology. The inner research moves in the internal theater, trying to find a part of himself that is struggling to find a way of expression, a stage, a place in the world.
The protagonist plays this part in his scene with the aim of earning his expressive path. The part of himself takes more definition, also through the interactions with his own counter-roles, and his subjective truth is affirmed on the scene. One observes it, makes it aware and transforms the part of oneself into a character through theatrical language.
From this we build a narrative frame that contains it. The study is quantitative and qualitative. There are unaccompanied minor boys in the project between the age of 15 and EXIT focuses on enhancing movement, imagination, engagement, connection, here and now, safety and responsibility. A film with the participants participating in the early intervention will be shown and the results will be presented and discussed. The lecture and film will give the participants an opportunity to understand community art work with participants who suffer from trauma, stress and loss.
A workshop to explore gender identity and stereotypes with psychodrama, between temporal variables generations in comparison and spatial variables nationalities in dialogue. The experience of psychodrama in individual therapeutic work and couple therapy offers many interests. Doubling can have the effect of touching the emotional experience, of feeling understood, of reinforcing an identity effect. The role change allows the protagonist to experience what an antagonist is going through in the therapeutic work.
Together, the interest of this role taking will be decided. Psychodramatic games allow us to experience from within what has been played in a scene in the history of the past or present protagonist s. The seminar will provide an opportunity to experience these different aspects of individual and couple therapy. EU- Represents all Member States which the calculation includes as of the year when data were available. Nella tabella precedente la Commissione U.
I dati su sfondo grigio sono stati stimati in base a dati dei regolatori o delle imprese nazionali beneficiate. I dati utilizzati sono riportati nella Tab. In essa quattro valori non comunicati dagli Stati sono stati stimati sulla base delle informazioni disponibili dai regolatori nazionali o dai bilanci degli enti interessati. Si tratta in conseguenza di un dato sottostimato in quanto non include gli aiuti di Stato alle imprese ferroviarie minori ed eventuali trasferimenti al gruppo FS effettuati nel ma di competenza di esercizi diversi e in conseguenza non riportati nel bilancio.
Come riportato nella Tab. Risultano invece molto distanziati nella classifica totale degli aiuti di Stato i paesi con reti rilevanti che hanno realizzato importanti processi di liberalizzazione del mercato: la Gran Bretagna con 58 miliardi di euro e la Svezia con soli 13 miliardi di euro. Spagna e Svezia, infine, hanno beneficiato di aiuti ridotti in valore assoluto pur essendo dotate di reti relativamente estese: 14 mila km la Spagna e 11 mila la Svezia.
Tutti gli altri principali paesi registrano valori sensibilmente inferiori al nostro: Francia e Regno Unito circa , Germania , Svezia , Finlandia e Spagna mila. Svezia e Finlandia e a danno dei paesi che hanno invece una quota superiore alla media es. Belgio e Olanda. Anche in questo caso tutti gli altri maggiori paesi registrano valori sensibilmente inferiori a quello italiano: Francia circa , Regno Unito , Germania , Svezia Gli altri tre principali paesi UK, FR, DE hanno registrato valori compresi tra 5,9 e 8,6 centesimi per km, la Svezia solo 4,3 centesimi. In sostanza, seguendo i comportamenti medi degli altri Stati considerati, circa tre quinti dei sussidi che sono stati erogati in Italia sarebbero stati egualmente erogati mentre i residui due quinti sarebbero rimasti nella casse pubbliche.
Il settore pubblico avrebbe risparmiato non solo questi 35 miliardi come minori aiuti di Stato ma avrebbe anche sostenuto una minor spesa per interessi sul debito pubblico derivante dal minor ricorso al debito per finanziare la spesa ferroviaria. I costi cumulati per la finanza pubblica italiana derivanti dagli eccessivi aiuti di Stato, rispetto alla media europea, concessi al settore ferroviario italiano dal al sono rappresentati nel Graf.
Si perviene in questo modo a stimare un onere complessivo per la finanza pubblica italiana di poco inferiore a 50 miliardi. Queste differenze non appaiono inoltre spiegabili attraverso rilevanti differenze nelle caratteristiche delle reti o nei livelli di trasporto e richiedono pertanto importanti approfondimenti causali per il futuro.
In termini monetari essa identifica un eccesso di trasferimenti pubblici al settore pari a 35 miliardi di euro nel periodo i quali evidenziano un costo complessivo per le casse pubbliche di circa 50 miliardi se si includono anche gli oneri in termini di interessi generati attraverso il loro finanziamento con debito pubblico. English to Italian: Tutela diplomatica e consolare dei cittadini europei in Paesi terzi.
General field: Social Sciences Detailed field: Law general. Translation - Italian This research paper looks at the diplomatic and consular tutelage of European citizens in third countries. The student that has addressed this issue, questioned herself on the topic after having conducted preliminary research based on the evolution of this matter in Europe; the results of which immediately identified that the current regulatory framework remains unclear.
Diplomatic tutelage has its own precise legal provision set out in Article 23 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union. I am a Senior Executive with over 20 years of broad experience in the financial services sector, at both a national and international level. I believe I have the required combination of banking supervision Company A , management consulting Company B , and general management experience Company C, Company D to best fit these key roles within your firm. You walk into the grocery story, and there it is, the fear inducing wall of wine. How do you know what to buy?
White or red? California or France? What goes best with dinner?
Why is this bottle 5 dollars and this one 50? Wine shops and restaurants can be helpful but, pretentious too. What if you could find the wines you know and love and discover new favourites without the middle man and marked up prices. Now you can. With Lot18, your adventure guide into a whole new world of wine. Lot18 makes discovering exceptional new wine, easy and affordable.
We connect you directly with producers around the world, helping you find wines that would be hard to discover on your own. Each wine offered on Lot18 is tasted and selected by a member of our procurement team of wine experts who visit winemakers and vineyards daily. So what are you waiting for? Start your wine adventure with Lot18 today. Go to Lot Quotidianamente, la stampa riporta notizia di sperimentazioni, di sviluppi terapeutici e di nuovi orientamenti normativi che rincorrono, a fatica, i progressi evocati. Affrontando la questione della sperimentazione umana in questa prospettiva, si nota come il riconoscimento a livello internazionale del diritto alla salute, a partire dalla Dichiarazione dei Diritti Umani del e a seguire tutte le Convenzioni e Carte che hanno confermato questa impostazione, abbia influito sugli esperimenti condotti su esseri umani e in quale misura oggi viene tollerato questo fenomeno.
Nel ' il progresso medico ha determinato un drammatico cambiamento del concetto di deontologia correlato alle discipline scientifiche e conseguentemente anche del trattamento riservato ai soggetti di ricerca. Altro famoso caso fu il Tuskegee study finanziato dal servizio per la salute pubblica degli Stati Uniti per cui dal al quasi quattrocento afroamericani affetti da sifilide vennero lasciati morire senza alcuna cura, anche quando questa era stata trovata, per studiare il decorso naturale della malattia.
Durante la seconda guerra mondiale numerosi furono gli esperimenti nazisti compiuti su esseri umani, utilizzati come cavie, nei campi di concentramento. Molti sono gli esempi di studi effettuati su nuovi farmaci o terapie poi smentiti da ulteriori ricerche. Si tratta di una pratica che implica la consultazione delle migliori fonti scientifiche per individuare prove utili e fondate ai fini della risoluzione di un quesito clinico. Come si svolge la RCT Quando si studia un nuovo trattamento farmaco, terapia occorre valutarne la sicurezza e dimostrare che questo sia fonte di effetti benefici per la persona.
Un clinical trial presuppone l'interruzione della normale pratica e la somministrazione del trattamento oggetto di studio. In tal caso lo studio viene definito cieco. Al termine della sperimentazione, o qualora ci fossero complicazioni, si va a vedere cosa effettivamente i partecipanti allo studio stavano assumendo e si fa una comparazione degli effetti tra i diversi gruppi di persone. Attraverso un confronto randomizzato, il trattamento studiato viene somministrato ad un rilevante gruppo di persone per capirne meglio l'efficacia, gli effetti e confrontarlo con le terapie usate tradizionalmente.
In questa fase, infatti, vengono comparati gruppi di persone che assumono trattamenti diversi al fine di valutare gli effetti benefici e quelli collaterali derivanti da ciascuno. Secondo quanto previsto dall'art. In particolare un piccola parte di queste ricerche viene portata avanti da medici di medicina generale MMG e da pediatri di libera scelta PDL i quali grazie al rapporto continuo con le persone e le loro storie, possono da un lato cogliere quali esigenze non sono state ancora affrontate e risolte e dall'altro seguire la sperimentazione nella vita di tutti i giorni.
Una ricerca clinica infatti ha motivo di esistere solo quando vi sia incertezza, per medico e paziente, circa il trattamento da somministrare tra quelli disponibili; questo implica l'attribuzione randomizzata delle terapie per confrontarne gli effetti e tacitarne le incertezze. Emanuel, D. Wendler e G. Rispetto della persona: implica il rispetto dell'autonomia del singolo e la protezione dei soggetti vulnerabili; 5. Principio di beneficenza: massimizzare i benefici e minimizzare i rischi; 6.
Principio di giustizia : equa distribuzione degli effetti positivi e negativi fra tutti i soggetti che partecipano ad uno studio sperimentale. Da citare anche sono le Guidelines for Good Clinical GCP-ICH adottate dalla International Conference of Harmonizzation che illustrano le procedure da seguire per ottenere il consenso informato dei pazienti e garantire allo stesso tempo la riservatezza dei dati. Questi documenti saranno poi ripresi parlando dei comitati etici. Il medico che si ammala prova innanzitutto cosa vuol dire la cieca fiducia nei confronti di chi lo cura, quasi uno stato di sudditanza e di sottomissione.
Queste informazioni riguardano sia i benefici che i rischi derivanti dalla sperimentazione. In ogni caso ai partecipanti viene offerto un costante monitoraggio e cure gratuite. Il consenso informato Secondo quanto previsto dall'art. Anche l'art. Questa persona riceve innanzitutto una informazione adeguata sullo scopo e sulla natura dell'intervento e sulle sue conseguenze e i suoi rischi. E continua all'art. Il consenso, dove appropriato, deve essere espresso e poter essere ritirato dalla persona interessata in qualsiasi momento e per qualsiasi motivo, senza conseguenti svantaggi e pregiudizi.
Queste raccomandazioni sono raccolte anche nella Dichiarazioni di Helsinki che, nell'ultima versione, all'art. Diritto di sapere e di non sapere Art. Ogni persona ha il diritto di conoscere ogni informazione raccolta sulla propria salute. D'altra parte, infatti, non sarebbe giusto caricare di eccessivi pesi persone esterne al problema. I comitati etici Nati originariamente come organo di consulenza e supporto a casi caratterizzati da complesse implicazioni etiche, i comitati si sono nel tempo diversificati per le molteplici funzioni svolte: nel hanno iniziato ad assumere un ruolo significativo, soprattutto negli USA.
Oggi si parla dei comitati etici come di organismi che riflettono il rapporto tra assistenza e ricerca, globale e locale. Caratteristica dei C. Proprio questa configurazione rispecchia la scommessa dei C.
Fanno parte del quadro di riferimento: la Dichiarazione di Helsinki, in particolare gli artt. In Italia un po' ovunque sono stati costituiti C. L'ultimo decreto in materia, D. Il parere del C. Concludendo, in ragione delle funzioni di cui sono titolari, i C. Tali istituti verificano la sussistenza dei requisiti soggettivi ed oggettivi necessari per iniziare la ricerca e la sperimentazione di medicinali, adottano pareri non vincolanti ed operano in un regime di notifica dell'avvio degli studi clinici.
Questo modello, diverso dalla normativa italiana che richiede una previa autorizzazione esplicita, ha ispirato la disciplina introdotta dalla direttiva n. Incaricati di elaborare principi deontologici professionali e di garantirne l'osservanza, a tali comitati va principalmente riconosciuto il merito di aver promosso il dibattito sui limiti etici della ricerca e della sperimentazione clinica e di aver conseguentemente influenzato in tal senso l'emanazione della legge 20 dicembre n.
Tale legge ha consentito l'istituzione su base regionale dei comitati etici per la ricerca che, a partire dal , vengono designati come Comitati consultivi per la protezione delle persone nella ricerca biomedica CCPPRB e ha fissato i requisiti minimi per il funzionamento di tali organismi. Come scritto sopra, la sperimentazione di nuovi farmaci per uso umano, che verranno poi messi in commercio, deve essere autorizzata dalle Ethik-Kommissionen secondo quanto previsto dalla legge federale sui prodotti farmaceutici Arzneimittelgesetz.
Tra questi assumono rilevanza i Local Research Ethics Committees, istituiti a partire dagli anni Sessanta presso strutture ospedaliere e di ricerca medica sulla base delle Guidelines on Responsability in Investigations on Human Subject. La riforma del sistema sanitario del Regno Unito, attuata nel , ha determinato la distribuzione territoriale dei Local Committees sulla base del modello tradizionale britannico delle District Health Authorities, che sostiene sotto il profilo amministrativo i comitati.
I compiti attribuiti ai Local Research Ethics Committees sono prevalentemente di tipo consultivo sia con riferimento a temi generali sia guardando ad aspetti specifici della politica sanitaria; tuttavia, la citata riforma ha conferito ai Committees anche funzioni di garante della riservatezza dei dati relativi ai soggetti partecipanti alle sperimentazioni. Negli ultimi anni si sono aggiunti altri organismi con funzioni consultive, istituiti con provvedimenti ad hoc relativi a settori specifici: Advisory Committee on Genetic Testing e la Human Genetics Advisory Commission.
I CEIC sono tenuti anche a vigilare sull'esecuzione dello studio clinico. Direttiva n. Per quanto riguarda gli aspetti sostanziali della direttiva, l'art. I controlli consistono in accertamenti presso i siti di sperimentazione e, se necessario, presso la sede dello sponsor; i risultati sono riconosciuti da tutti i Paesi membri e sono contenuti nella relazione messa a disposizione dello sponsor. Introduction: an overview of experimentation In recent years, ethical and legal issues stemming from the progress of science and technology in the field of biomedicine have become a popular topic of discussion of an increasingly wider audience.
Every day, the press reports news of experimentation, developments of treatments and new regulatory guidelines that chase, with difficulty, the evoked progress. Said developments have initiated an articulated, and not always clear, dialogue between science and civil society, thus helping to bring the debate regarding the public utility of modern science, outside of the confines of the scientific community.
Bioethics has become a testimony to these fundamental principles - dignity of human beings and individual freedom — and has not neglected, but rather included the right to life, the protection against inhumane treatment, inviolability and non-commodification of the human body and the freedom of scientific creation related to freedom of thought.
The principle of responsibility is added to these, as stated by H. Jonas , as a model necessary for the survival and development of humanity in a society dominated by technological and industrial progress. These themes, derived from bioethics, have been interpreted by international law, particularly in the European community, in order to convert these messages into a legal form. By addressing the issue of human experimentation from this perspective, one can notice how the international recognition of the right to health, since the Declaration of Human Rights in and following the Conventions and Charters regarding this issue, has influenced experiments conducted on human beings and the extent to which the phenomenon is tolerated today.
Human experimentation has ancient origins, according to reports by Celso, Herophilius of Chalcedon carried out vivisection on prisoners sent by the Ptolemaic King, that over centuries has marked very different stages. It is sufficient to consider the experiment of Walter Reed. An American doctor that, in order to develop the inoculation against yellow fever, subjected individuals to experimentation without informed consent, and in some cases even under duress.
Another famous case was that of the Tuskegee study funded by the U. S public health service from to in which almost four hundred African Americans with syphilis were left to die without a cure, even after it was found, in order to study the natural course of the disease. So many scandals were reported that, Henry Beecher , a well-known professor at the Faculty of Medicine at Harvard University, published an article in which he exposed dozens of examples of researchers who included people in hazardous research without informing them.
During the Second World War, numerous Nazi experiments were carried out on humans used as guinea pigs in concentration camps.
Following the process that saw the leaders of the operation involved, the Nuremberg Code, the guidelines of which will be examined later, was adopted. The main purpose of this essay is to show how the ethical issues raised by experimenting on humans have today become major topics of discussion, and to illustrate the limits imposed by the international community to this phenomenon, so vast that, given its importance, would require an even vaster discussion.
Clinical trials Medicine: an experimental discipline Medicine has always had considerable and unavoidable power in society, bestowed by the fact that it marks the stages of life, from birth to death, provoking strong emotions, great expectations and irrational fears in people that have to use them. While on one hand this bestowed power allows medical science to assume a key role in society, on the other hand it must be clarified that this role is not undertaken in an abstract manner, but in close contact with humanity and, it is for this reason that medicine is deeply influenced by values, the economy and the political systems to which it belongs.
In this context, one questions whether it is really possible for patients to become ill and thus favour the development of public health policies free from market logic, since the main interest of the community, particularly the most vulnerable, is not the protection of rights, but the affirmation of private interests; medicine reflects this state of affairs.
Medical science is spoken about as an experimental discipline in which knowledge must be continually improved and placed under review, as there are few certainties and many different avenues that can be taken. There are many examples of studies regarding new medicines or therapies later contradicted by further research. Experimentation does not constitute a particular phase of medical practice, but occurs in the presence of areas of uncertainty regarding medicines used to treat, prevent, or reduce the side effects of a certain illness.
It is therefore the practice, that is dealing with patients, that indicates the most urgent aspects that need to be researched, in which time and ideas need to be invested. It is from this that the need for all doctors involved in the research to know how to utilise the results obtained from the production of knew knowledge and tailor it to individual cases is derived.
The relationship between medicine and research can be summarised as follows: health is a right and the right to health requires research, as it is one of the best ways to help and participate when answers are missing. In , Johannes Fibiger carried out a study for the first time using a new, rigorous method as whilst administering a serum against diphtheria to numerous patients on alternate days, he identified methodological criteria to follow when carrying out research: a larger sample of patients, a long period of study and alternation.
It were then that Archibald Cochrane, an English epidemiologist, who, in order to protect health rights and avoid that it be left to the disposition of doctors, in , stressed the importance of implementing RCT systematic methods in all pharmacological research. It is a practice that requires the consultation of the best scientific sources to identify relevant and well-grounded evidence with the purpose of resolving a clinical problem. The modification of certified efficiency evidence, obtained in the short term, especially in areas that are not very univocal and are subject to change, indicates abuse by the scientific community and pharmaceutical industries.
How RCT is carried out When a new treatment is studied medicine, treatment its safety should be evaluated and it should demonstrate that it is a source of beneficial effects for patients. A clinical trial assumes the interruption of normal practice and the administration of the treatment the object of the study. When choosing the subjects to participate in the efficacy studies, only certain categories of patients suffering from an illness may be included, however those suffering from comorbid conditions are excluded. It is important that research is carried out on a substantial number of people, a representative sample that allows results to be transferable in other contexts.
According to the RCT model, patients are divided into groups similar in age, disease characteristics and other factors, not by a doctor but by a computer; this process is known as randomisation. One group generally receives the treatment, the object of the study, while the other group, the control group, receives a previously used therapy or a placebo , or both together. For this reason, usually the patient is not told upon entering the study whether they are taking the active drug or the placebo.
This is known as a blind study. On the contrary, when the patient is aware of the treatment that they will receive, it is known as an open study. Considering that the perception of the researcher is also affected, it is carried out in such a way that the doctors do not know which treatment is given to the participants. At the end of the trial, or in the case of any complications, the object administered to the study participants is revealed, and a comparison of the different effects of the two groups is made.
It is for this reason that receiving the best possible treatment, more than just a placebo for diseases for which there is no treatment , and being informed about taking a controlled or placebo medicine is one of the rights of the study participants. CLINICAL PHASE II: involves the inclusion of subjects with the specific illness for which the drug is intended, in order to evaluate to what extent the pharmacologically active doses are capable of producing effects that are attributable to treatment goals, and subsequently an initial safety profile is drawn up; 4.
By means of a randomised comparison, the studied treatment is administered to a relevant group of people in order to better understand its efficacy and effects, before being compared to the traditionally used therapies. In this phase, groups of people who are administered different treatments are compared in order to assess the benefits and side effects coming from each. At the end of this phase, the drug promoter, if the study is registrative, may request commercial authorisation. In rare cases, and for very serious diseases for which there is no valid treatment, the participants of the study may continue to receive the same treatment as if the trial were to continue.
Clearly, the registration of these medicines is carried out based on the surrogate indicators of efficiency, which take into account, for example, the reduction of the cancer mass rather than the reduction of mortality. This procedure, while on one hand it leads to quicker approvals, on the other hand it produces less reliable results.
A famous case is that of Gefitinib, a drug placed on the U. S market in following a fast-track approval procedure before later being withdrawn as according to the National Cancer Institute, it was unable to improve the life expectancy of patients; in fact, subsequent investigations revealed that not only did the drug not help patients suffering from lung cancer, but it could actually be counterproductive.
Since this case, not an isolated incident, many questions have emerged regarding the risk posed to the patients during the first trial, whether it was successful or not. This is a complex issue as it involves drugs aimed at a limited category of sick people and the pharmaceutical industries believe that patients should not be deprived of any drug that may be able to benefit them, albeit minimally.
Where experimentations are carried out As a rule, research should be conducted where the people, to whom the results should be applied, are found, however, it is common practice that studies take place in hospitals or in specialist medical centres carried out by doctors. A small part of this research is carried out by general practitioners GPs and paediatricians, who, thanks to their on-going relationships with patients and their histories, can both understand the needs that have not yet been addressed and resolved, and follow the experimentation daily.
Experimentation ethical requirements The uncertainty principle is the basis for all experimentation projects as it is an ethical and scientific requirement that cannot be disregarded.
Unable to overcome such complete vulnerability, the nation was at the mercy of British interests. The workshop employs the methods of psychodrama, family constellations, family systems therapy and Imago and EFT relationship therapy. It also reflects complex phenomena, from the steady migration into Naples from other areas in the Realm, to the continual daily commuting of so-called cafoni , common louts, from the surrounding countryside. Pratica e teoria devono avanzare pari passu. His less than flattering comments on Portuguese customs officials and the tone of his replies to his brother-in-law whenever suspicion of laxness or mismanagement hung in the air prove the point. Written in fifteenth century Italy, the Ogdoas is a minor work by a lesser-known author who nevertheless shows interest in themes treated by the major humanists in their well-known works during this time: Very little is known about the author himself, but our editors provide some information about biography and context. Earp, Guillaume de Machaut.
Clinical research only exists when patients or physicians are uncertain of which treatment to administer amongst those available; this requires the random administration of treatments in order to compare the effects and reduce incertitude. In North America, clinical equipoise — that reflects collective incertitude — is the dominant ethical foundation […].
In the paper written by E. Wendler and G. Documents that, at an international level indicate the way in which experimentation should be carried out, also emphasise how it responds to health care needs whose goal is to transform medical incertitude into research in order to provide answers increasingly conforming to the needs of mankind.
The Oviedo Convention and the Declaration of Helsinki, adopted in by the World Medical Association WMA , thus a deontological document, is regularly updated in what is universally recognised as a reference point for biomedical research; originating from the need of medical science to answer important questions regarding its responsibilities, roles and duties. Later in this essay, we will look at how the ethics of experimentations in poor countries have different characteristics and how the standard of care is not always guaranteed.
It is a document that resuming the principles contained in the Convention regarding experimentation, focuses on human dignity and the protection of human rights so much so that article 28 obliges Member States and sponsors to follow the principles stated therein if the research is carried out in non-signatory countries. Twenty-two guidelines are outlined in this document: the first trace the path to follow in order to achieve good quality, valid, clinical research.
The others analyse the controversial aspects of informed consent, the sensitive issue of privacy, the liability of sponsors and doctors as well as the need to protect people involved in the study both during and after the experimentation, in cases where states cannot guarantee health care. Respect for the person: implies respecting the personal autonomy of the individual and the protection of vulnerable subjects; 2. The principle of beneficence: maximise benefits and minimise risks; 3. The principle of justice: the equal distribution of positive and negative effects amongst all participants of the experimental study.
The Guidelines for Good Clinical Practice GCP-ICH adopted by the International Conference of Harmonization should also be mentioned as they illustrate the procedure that should be followed in order to obtain informed consent from patients and at the same time guarantee the confidentiality of personal data. These documents will later be reviewed when discussing the topic of ethics committees.
One should consider, however, that while on one hand the trial allows the medicine to alter the natural course of the disease, providing innovative, and in some cases less invasive solutions, on the other hand, particularly in patients suffering from severe diseases, the research may create an asymmetric situation in which the sick individuals rely on research hypothesis, interpreting them as promises. Unfortunately, in many cases, these expectations are not met and it is therefore important that those who participate in clinical studies make conscious decisions and that the fragility of participants being in such extreme situations, is not more powerful than that of those who have to study these hypotheses.
Anyone, regardless of age or social status, suffering from a disease is vulnerable to healing hypotheses. A doctor who becomes ill discovers, first of all, what it means to trust in those who should cure him, almost in a state of subjection and submission. Informing the individual: benefits and risks No one can describe better the symptoms, effects and feelings of a treatment better than those who have experienced it first hand. From a sharing and cooperation point of view, people that participate in clinical studies make an important contribution to medical science: they allow the identification of unresolved problems, clarify the most important information to be evaluated and its relationships, and suggest developments for research procedures, how to collect data and how to interpret and communicate the results.
On this basis, it is important to keep in mind, however, that individuals are subjects and not objects of study: from this, the distinction between people and guinea pigs is derived. Over the years, human guinea pigs have been spoken about too often, from Nazi crimes to many other cases, and today, to prevent history from repeating itself, standard practice is to give the participant an informed consent module to fill out, composed of detailed, written information with the intention of facilitating their involvement in the study. This information concerns both the benefits and the risks of the experimentation to be carried out.
With regards to the benefits, they can be direct when the treatment being studied is found to be innovative and effective for the person involved, or indirect when the subject contributes to research without deriving any personal benefit. In any case, participants are offered constant monitoring and free medical care. The issue of risk, however, is more complex, as it should always be evaluated in relation to the problem and its severity: when faced with a serious and disabling illness, that offers little hope of life, side effects are considered more acceptable and tolerable; thus the risk is more easily accepted.
The situation is clearly different if healing prospects are higher: here the risks may be too high. In any case the informative module is exhaustive and side effects are described in detail, explaining any possible event. This complicates the patients understanding of the proposal and the actual degree of toxicity of the study. The main point is that in reality, experimentation is not so different from normal clinical practice: the paths are uncertain and lengths, obstacles and precise destinations are unknown.
Informed consent is a result of personal choice, related to correct, complete and transparent information. Since the creation of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights in , free and informed consent represents a fundamental guarantee of the protection of human dignity in science. The practice of obtaining informed consent results from a delicate and complex path that medicine has taken in order to change the traditional idea that people are not free to make decisions concerning their own health, as these decisions need to be made by people who are scientifically and technically capable of managing these specific problems.
Nowadays, it is no longer doctors that make decisions regarding our health, but everyone has the right, freedom and responsibility to choose how to be treated from a range of possible cures; patients are offered the possibility to understand what is happening. Beforehand, this person is given the appropriate information regarding the purpose and the nature of the intervention and its consequences and risks.