Other-ori- ented gift giving is the ground and complement of self interested exchange, which takes from it, exploiting the gifts of the many. Lies and propaganda follow the ego-oriented model of the exchange economy, while the truth is a gift to the receiver. By revealing the truth about Patriarchal Capitalism, the speakers follow the gift model and satisfy the needs of everyone to know. It can instead be understood as a concept that explains the character of the whole social order in which we are living today, so- cialism included. Von Werlhof gives a deep analysis of how Patriarchy crystallizes into Capitalism and advises us how to move towards an alternative.
Louise Benally, Dineh, Navajo USA , talks about the difficulty of living in a gift economy while the gifts of the community are being taken by the market. The coal from Big Mountain, where her tribe lives, is used to supply the electricity to Las Vegas where the conference was being held. In fact, the waste of electricity on the neon lights of the city of gambling is notorious. In Big Mountain there is nothing—no electricity, no running water. Ana Isla Peru demonstrates the importance of not accepting the false gifts of Patriarchal Capitalism, which are hidden exchanges, Trojan horses of the market.
Her analysis shows that micro credit projects and debt-for-nature swaps can be deadly in spite of what may appear to be good intentions. In supporting the gift economy it is important to recognize what is not a gift, as well as what is. She places hope in the web of reciprocal obligations of care that develop bonds across great distances. Before colonization, she tells us, food was produced by individual families but it was not individual- ized. Colonization took 87 percent of the land for the whites.
With the stabilized fracture of the Kalifrost nebula, tempers have flared to claim rights to the newly forged dimensions of the mirror. King Domus races against his . Manifest Brutality: Nueromorphic Tragedy. By Alexander A. Dahl Manifest Brutality: Chronus & Ecliptus. $ Manifest Brutality: Chronus & Ecliptus. $
Now there is widespread poverty, a break down of the community, and a widespread AIDS epidemic. The Big Lie cannot stand; researchers from all over the world are trying to bring us the truth. The Western construction of gender as heterosexual brings with it the construction of a non- nurturing mode of distribution based on exchange. The gift economy provides an alternative for living and thinking beyond the norm of normativity. Survival and even thrival are fostered by gift giving at new levels, not only beyond but within and around the market.
She describes the present scarcity imposed by the system and the con- tinuation of gift giving and sharing in spite of the widespread poverty. Khoekhoe spirituality is based on gift giving; hospitality, and ceremonial giving are a spiritual necessity. Scarcity in the Global South, already a result of exploitation by the North, has been intensified by globalization. Thus migrants have been driven from their home countries by poverty, and forced to go to work in the North to provide the necessary sustenance to their families.
These individual contributions cumulatively form a huge monetary gift to the economies of the South. Strong networks based on family bonds facilitate this gift giving and maintain community in spite of distance. The migrants transform the experience of exclusion and exploitation into one of liberation for themselves and their families. At the time of the conference, Grenada, the island of her birth, had been devastated by a hurricane, and Antrobus knew that much gift giving would be necessary by the people of the Diaspora to restore the resources upon which the local economy was based. She believes that the gift economy needs to be recognized and affirmed or it will die, negated by the values of neo liberal, capitalist globalization.
The non-profit sector in the U. Tracy Gary USA talks from the point of view of a donor and philanthropic organizer. She discusses open source technology as a gift and gives an example of the way FIRE is sharing it with women. The mode of for-giving concentrates attention on the unmet needs behind the offense, and attempts to satisfy them. Gift giving re-presents itself at many levels, shifting from theory to practice and vice versa. This presentation was given in tandem with a presentation by Palestinian Sylvia Shihadeh, which was not revised in time to be included in this volume.
Together the two activists gave an example of peaceful collaboration and mutual respect, which was a much needed gift to all. However she wonders if recognizing these gifts will not make them more vulnerable to appropriation. Hawaiian sovereignty activist, UN advisor and lawyer Mililani Trask opposes the commodification of knowledge and nature, the theft of intellectual property and bio piracy that are now being promoted by globalization. Traditional knowledge and relationships with nature are sacred for Indigenous people.
The bounty of Earth must be part of the commons so that all may share in the gifts of the creator. She makes the important point that Indigenous women should be in the leadership of the move- ment for a gift economy. In fact, if they come from gift economies they have the experience of generalized social gift giving, which makes up the context in which their roles as mothers and daughters are formed. Taking the point of view of the other is an important aspect of an other-ori- ented gift economy.
Kumar looks at the worldview of the future, of women of the South, the people on the margins, the South in the South and the South in the North. In it she finds the voices of radical dissent that can give rise to a new imaginary. In contrast they give us an alternative vision where people on the margins are subjects of their own history. Marta Benevides El Salvador life-long peace activist, tells us how the right created the fear of losing the remittances in order to influence recent elections in her country.
As a strategist she says we have to vision what we want, do discern- ment and manifest power by being the future now, being peace. We should give the gift of living for the ideals of peace, freedom and justice, not just of dying for them. She believes we should be peace, be the revolution, changing the situation locally, with peaceful actions of the people, appropriate to each place. She believes that the only way to protect women from this subtle justification of enslavement is that they be freed from forced giving and practice gift giving beyond patriarchal control.
In her article, she describes what the feeling is at Burning Man, the gift economy festival, which is based on the work of Lewis Hyde. There are now many such four-day festivals, where people share their works of art and imagination free, around the world. Participating in this social experiment it is possible to get a glimpse of what a world based on a gift economy might be like. Brackin Firecracker gives examples of activism from her own life, including examples of the innovative new genre of radical cheerleading.
She believes it is important to recognize that gift giving is what activists have been doing all along, and that through this recognition, their values are more generally validated, giving them greater power to satisfy impelling needs for social change. It was prepared by International Feminists for a Gift Economy, a loose-knit group, which began in Norway in at a meeting of women called by the nascent International Feminist University Network, makes a collective statement, which affirms the gift economy and critiques the market in the context of globalization.
Some of the authors of the articles in this book are members of the network. This statement was first presented by the group at their workshop at the World Social Forum in Porto Alegre, Brazil, in See the website www. Genevieve Vaughan is an independent researcher, activist, social change philanthropist, and founder of the feminist Austin, Texas-based Foundation for a Compassionate Society in operation from — and in a reduced form until Showings can be scheduled and copies ordered from www. She is now based in Italy and devotes her time to writing and speaking about the gift economy.
She has three daughters. Patriarchy and Capitalism have similar values and motivations: competition for domination and the desire for accumulation in order to be the biggest, the one at the top. Like Capitalism, patriarchy is systemic. I discuss this more in the text and in my article below. Jump back to footnote 1 in the text. New information has come out about the numbers of Native people killed by diseases brought by the Europeans. In fact the lands seemed uninhabited because the people who lived there had all died due to epidemics of measles and smallpox brought from Europe.
So first, the Europeans were carriers of diseases, which destroyed the Indig- enous people. They ignored the extent of the Indigenous civilization because they did not know it. Secondly they attacked the remaining Native people ferociously, taking over their land, eliminating them as competitors. They developed a worldview, which hid the rapacity of their behaviour from themselves, and this worldview was added to their original ignorance.
Similarly we do not consciously recognize the gift economy, which we are actually practicing and we also attack and exploit it so we are in denial about it, and this denial is added to our lack of recognition of it. Jump back to footnote 2 in the text. Jump back to footnote 4 in the text. The discussion of the gift economy and patriarchal capitalism attempts to find where cooperative partner- ship and competitive dominator values and behaviours come from and to use this knowledge in constructing the alternative.
Jump back to footnote 5 in the text. I agree with this approach but I look at this labour as gift labour, which I believe establishes a common thread of continuity with other kinds of gift giving. Jump back to footnote 6 in the text. I am not proposing the end of individuality but that it develop on a very different basis. Jump back to footnote 7 in the text. An early exception making the connection with mothering is Helene Cixous Cixous and Clement See for example, Hazel Henderson , Others have theorized the care economy within the framework of the market Nancy Folbre , Jump back to footnote 8 in the text.
Jump back to footnote 9 in the text. In this they are similar to the opposition and threat to the institutions created in Europe by the Nature religion of witchcraft. Jump back to footnote 10 in the text. For example, initiatives for economic justice, for equal pay for comparable work, for a living wage, for Fair Trade instead of Free Trade, initiatives for community currencies, for socially useful investing, for solidarity economics, and experiments like the Work Less Party, provide alternative models, help to create a less monolithic economy and empower grassroots agency.
These attempts at partial change can make it easier to transition to more radical change without violence. I believe it is important not to consider them the final goals but steps along the path to a gift economy. Jump back to footnote 11 in the text. More on gender categorization can be found in my article in this book. Jump back to footnote 12 in the text. For example Derrida sees gifts as almost impossible because if they are done for recognition, and even if they are recognized, they become exchanges.
Jump back to footnote 14 in the text. Godbout and Caille assert that it is not necessary for the gift to be pure. Jump back to footnote 15 in the text. Matriarchal gift giving is egalitarian because it is not invested with Patriarchal motiva- tions. There is less occasion for a struggle for recognition in egalitarian gift economies because recognition is easily given and passed on.
Jump back to footnote 16 in the text. It was hoped that by giving aid to impoverished people of Afghanistan these causes could have been alleviated. Instead, a culprit was found to punish, i. Jump back to footnote 17 in the text. For Marx  this is abstract labour value.
We can say it is labour abstracted from gift giving. The concentration on the need of the other and the creativity involved in filing it, including personal details and tastes, along with the value transmitted, are left aside for this abstraction. In the market a product derives its quantity of value from the relation of similarity or difference with regard to the value of all other products within a given branch of production.
These are abstract and general relations. The quantity of exchange value that products have depends upon the socially necessary labour time required to produce them also calculated abstractly at a given level of technology and productivity of labour. But unless it has a direct receiver no gift value is transmitted by it because gift value is the implied value of the other.
Such labour is the service or gift-production, which does not reach its destination because it is stopped by exchange or privatization.
Retailers use gift giving to promote sales with gimmicks; this is a gift used for the purposes of exchange. One can of course buy something for someone else as a gift; this is a gift beyond the exchange interaction itself. Jump back to footnote 19 in the text. Women seem to want to include men in their meetings and events while men typi- cally do not include women. This perhaps shows that the women are practicing the gift logic, which is inclusive. They identify a possible need of men to be included and try to give them that gift while the men are practicing the identity logic, which is categorical and exclusive and does not stimulate them to perceive a need of women to be included.
Even in the cases where they do perceive the need, they usually do not feel compelled to satisfy it. By including men, women run the risk of embracing those who are practicing an opposing and oppositional logic.
Jump back to footnote 20 in the text. The practice in some countries of allowing girl children to starve while boy children are fed demonstrates how gifts and the implication of value can be withheld. The girl dies because to her parents and the wider society she is valueless and unvalued and because she is allowed to die she is valueless. Jump back to footnote 21 in the text.
The idea of a prototype or best example of a kind for the formation of categories can be found in the field of cognitive linguistics. See George Lakoff and John Taylor Jump back to footnote 22 in the text. I have discussed this process extensively in my books For-Giving and Homo donans , and the reader can find more about it in my article in this volume. Even if he overcomes the father as the prototype however, the boy still does not have the access to the gift economy he had when he was identified with his mother.
In matriarchies and gift economies he never loses this access. Jump back to footnote 23 in the text. Where male chiefs compete to be the greatest gift givers—the most mothering men. Jump back to footnote 24 in the text. For example, look at the gift perspective and the issue of abortion rights. The ability to choose abortion gives back to women some of the authority over gift giving that Patriarchal religions have taken away from them for centuries. Moreover if the masculated male gender iden- tity rejects the mother and imposes an identity based on not-giving, the ability of women mothers not to give, challenges the male gender construction by removing its oppositional cornerstone.
The question of abortion is not so much a question of the right of the fetus to life a right, which seems to end at birth anyway but the right of the mother to give or not to give, and her authority over the gift logic itself. If religions and governments lose their authority over gift giving, what authority do they have left? Jump back to footnote 25 in the text. Though much has been written on women and language the writers have mostly taken their points of departure from within linguistics, semiotics, the philosophy of language as provided by Patriarchal academia.
Similarly feminist economists have continued to work within the market paradigm. Writing about language, feminists discuss for instance how women use language differently from men Lakoff, R. What is needed is a different conception of language itself in tandem with a different conception of the economy, reformulating both in terms of the gift paradigm.
Jump back to footnote 26 in the text. It is in this sense that Patriarchal Capitalist philanthropy should be read. Patriarchal control of gift giving is normalized once more. Jump back to footnote 27 in the text. Jump back to footnote 28 in the text. The idea for the temple had its beginnings in in the s when I went to Egypt on vacation with my husband. The tour guide showed us the statue of the goddess Sekhmet, and said that she was the goddess of fertility, and that by making her a promise, a woman could get pregnant.
I did that, promising her a temple and that very week became pregnant. I knew I had to keep the promise and finally bought land near the nuclear test site in the Nevada dessert where the was temple built in , and after which I gave the land back to the Western Shoshone. Cynthia Burkhardt was the temple priestess for the first year, and Patricia Pearlman was the second, from to Statues of Sekhmet and Mother Earth, by Indigenous sculptor Marsha Gomez, grace the temple along with smaller images of goddesses from many cultures.
The temple and its guest house are free to visitors according to the principles of the gift economy. The present priestess is Anne Key see www. Patricia Pearlman died of cancer in March We mourn her passing. Jump back to footnote 29 in the text. Bennholdt-Thomson, Veronika and Maria Mies. London: Zed Books. Caille, Alain, Il terzo paradigma. Antropologia filosofica del dono, Torino, Bollati Boringheri. Caille, Alain and Jacques Godbout. The World of the Gift. Chodorow, Nancy. Berkeley: University of California Press. New York: Harper and Row. Derrida, Jacques.
Given Time. Counterfeit Money. Peggy Kamuf. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Eisler, Riane. San Francisco: Harper and Row. Folbre, Nancy. Who Pays for the Kids? Gender and Structures of Constraint.
London: Routledge. Goettner-Abendroth, Heide. Stuttgart, Germany: Kohlhammer-Verlag. Goux, Jean-Joseph. Symbolic Economies: After Marx and Freud. Ithaca: Cornell University Press. Henderson, Hazel. Indiana: Knowledge Systems, Inc. West Hartford, Kumarian Press. Herman, Andrew. Boulder, Westview Press. Hyde, Lewis.
New York: Random House. Lakoff, George. Lakoff, George and Mark Johnson. New York: Basic Books. Latouche, Serge. Soveria Manelli, Rubbettino Editore. Mann, Barbara. Mann, Charles. Knopf, New York. Marx, Karl. A Contribution to the Critique of Political Economy.
Chicago: Charles H. Kerr and Company. Grundrisse: Foundations of the Critique of Political Economy. New York: Vintage Books. Mauss, Marcel. London, Routledge. Mies, Maria and Veronika Bennholdt-Thomson. Raddon, Mary-Beth. Montreal: Black Rose Books. Rossi-Landi, Ferruccio. Sanday, Peggy Reeves. New York: Cambridge University Press. Women at the Center: Life in a Modern Matriarchy.
Saussure, Ferdinand de. Cours de linguistique generale. Charles Bally and Albert Sechehaye. Paris: Payot. Schrift, Alan D. New York: Routledge. Tannen, Deborah. New York: William Morrow. Vaughan, Genevieve. Berlin and New York: Walter de Gruyter. Vaughan, Genevieve, ed. Roma, Meltemi Editore. Waring, Marilyn. San Francisco. Harper and Row. Watson-Franke, Maria-Barbara. New York: Pergamon Press.
Weatherford, Jack. New York: Fawcett Columbine. Werlhof, Claudia von. Bennholdt-Thomson, N. Faraclas and C. London, Zed Books. Wright, Kenneth. Vision and Separation, Between Mother and Baby. Indigenous Knowledge and Gift Giving: Living in Community - Jeannette Armstrong I would like to share my language with you, and give you greetings from all of my family and my community and my people, the Syilx.
I give thanks that I am able to share some words with you. The only thing that I can offer is my thinking. How it might be put to work, how it might be incorporated, or how it might be thought of in terms of the change that needs to happen, is all up to those who hear and read these words. I come from a small community in the southern interior part of British Columbia, about miles inland and parallel to Vancouver. My people are sometimes referred to as the Okanagan people, but the Okanagan is actually the geographic valley that we live in.
We are the Syilx people, and that is how I refer to myself. It is one of the only areas in Canada that is considered to be a desert. It means we have very little rainfall. This is because of the two mountain systems on both sides of our valley. The ecology is very harsh and dry in the summertime, and therefore the learning that our people have had to accomplish and achieve over many generations, in order to survive, has a lot to do with scarcity. In a land where there is not a lot of abundance, where the fragility of the eco-system requires absolute knowledge and understanding that there must be care not to overextend our use of it because it can impact on how much we have to eat the following year, or years after in terms of your coming generations, we have developed a practice, a philosophy and a gov- ernance systems are based on our understanding that we need to be always vigilant and aware of not over-using, not over-consuming the resources of our land, and that we must always be mindful of the importance of sharing and giving.
We must also be aware in everything that we are doing that the same possibilities must be available to our children, our grandchildren, and our great-grandchildren, and so it is an immense responsibility. I think of it in terms of our direct connection to how the land operates, how the land gives life, and how, as human beings, we are a part of that.
I think losing that connection has a lot to do with some things Living in Community that are wrong today in the world. From my perspective, the land is a body that gives continuously, and we as human beings are an integral part of that body. What Indigenous means to me is that everything that exists on the Earth is interdependent, an interdependence that must be understood. As an Indigenous person, I must have knowledge about it and I must be able to cooperate with all the other living things on the planet, on this land, so as not to make any one of them extinct or remove any one of them for my own need.
In other words, to cooperate and to collaborate with every living thing so that they can live and I can live at the same level of health. Without this cooperation, you cannot call yourself Indigenous. For example, a plant we may have in our home is indigenous to somewhere because it could live there on its own in an interdependent relationship with its climate, within its land and its topography.
But once removed from there, we have to do all kinds of other things to allow this plant to live in our environment. If we took it out of the house and put it in the desert, where we live, this plant would not survive a day. I think of Indigenousness in that way. I think of it in terms of the way that all the systems have been changed in my community in a forced way. When I think about my life, I think about how the land gave me my life.
When I bend in order to avoid accepting the rules of their authority, I am destroying the foundations, I am insulting their legitimacy. Breathe deeply and let it flow into you. For a time, Light and Darkness were the sum total of the universe, but neither was content knowing each was not whole without the other. Could it be only a hour flight, a glass of whisky, three meals, two movies, some writing and half a drawing away…? An infinity of organic machines No matter how far we venture in analyzing matter, there is an infinity of organic machines for us to perceive.
Without the Okanagan land, without the Syilx people and all the relatives that live and lived on this land, without every single thing that sustains my people such as food, medicine, clothing and shelter, without all of those things that sur- round us, surround me, I would not be. It is the same feeling with community, and it is the same with all of the generations of relatives that have sustained each other, interacted with each other, in really specific ways to be able to continue life.
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